Category Archives: Historical / Scientific facts

The purpose of this category is to rewrite the TRUE & AUTHENTIC World & Indian History without any Pride or Prejudice towards any individual or community or country or religion. Also the purpose of this category is to explore the Sciences behind different Customs & Traditions, Rituals & Followings, Mythology & Scriptures.

Demystifying Kali !!

De-mystifying Kali

By Nithin Sridhar

Published in Living Wise Project

The name Kali which is actually pronounced as “kaali” is taken from the root word “kaala” which can either mean time or darkness. Time denotes motion as time is always in motion. Time has no beginning. It is always changing. In fact, the whole universe and all its objects are always in motion, driven by time. The objects take birth, grow in size, decay and finally die. This whole process is driven by time. And Kali is one who is the essence of time, who is time herself.

Therefore, it is Kali who creates, controls and destroys the universe. She is called as “Adya-the oldest or the first” who is the source of all changes, all manifestations. The other meaning of the term i.e. “darkness” or “black”, also denotes the same meaning.

Just as the colour black denotes an absorption of all colours in science, Kali represents a state wherein the whole universe lies absorbed in an unmanifested seed state (also called as Mula-prakriti). Therefore, as the embodiment of time, she is the creator and sustainer of the universe, and as an embodiment of darkness, she denotes the dissolution of the universe.

She can be considered as equivalent to Samkhyan Prakriti and Vedantic Maya. Therefore, her name or her colour which is black, does not denote that she is a “monster” as many Western interpretations imply.

Now coming to her iconographic details, she is shown as having her tongue lolling out with blood dripping from her mouth. She is usually depicted as having four hands, with one holding a sword, another a severed head, the other two hands are in the mudras of granting blessings and grant fearlessness, or sometimes hold objects like lotus or a bowl. She is naked with dishevelled hair and is usually shown in the backdrop of a samshan (cremation ground). She wears a garland of skulls around her neck and a skirt made of severed hands.

Now, let us look at what these means. A garment is a covering draped on the body. The whole cosmos can be understood as the cosmic body of Kali. There is nothing outside it. Therefore she is without a garment, without a covering. Hence, she is naked. A garment can also represent the limitation of “rupa/form”. The manifestation of various objects is nothing but a manifestation of nama (name) and rupa (form). But, Kali being the unmanifested source has no rupa and hence is naked. The garment may also denote the three gunas i.e. Sattva, Rajas and Tamas, that is worn by Atman (Self) to become manifest as universe. Kali who is non-different from Atman in its absolute state, is without the gunas and hence naked. Therefore, there is no sexuality involved in her depiction as being naked; this is but another common misinterpretation.

The blood dripping from her mouth and her apparent blood-lust depicts a very specific spiritual process of “rakta-shuddi”, the purification of the blood. Blood is the most important carrier of the prana (vital force) in the physical body. The purification of the prana and hence of the blood is very important in Kundalini yoga. Goddess Kali is the one who purifies the prana. Her drinking of blood denotes this purification of blood and vital force. This drinking of blood can also mean the absorption of the individual vital forces into herself. That is, she liberates a person from bondage to physical body and helps him to merge his subtle body into hers thereby attaining spiritual union with her.

The severed head indicates the ego of the individuals that is afflicted with lust, anger, delusion and other passions of the mind. The sword is used to cut this unpurified ego. Goddess Kali is the one who grants purification of the mind by cutting off the limited ego that is afflicted with mental passions called “arishdvarga”. The hands showing the granting of boons and a sign of fearlessness needs no further explanation.

The severed hands represents karmas or actions. Hands are one of the organs of actions and hence is used as a symbol for karmas. She wears a skirt of severed hands, because it is she alone who is able to severe our karmas, and make us free of their bondage. She helps the spiritual practitioners to move towards moksha (liberation), by cutting of their karmas one by one.

The severed heads are sometimes depicted as being 51 in number that depict the 51 letters of Sanskrit and hence the whole domain of speech and knowledge. The garland of skulls may also denote that a person has to undergo hundreds of lives in various bodies before he could attain moksha. The dishevelled hair denote that she is not bound by the rules of human society.

She is usually depicted as having one of her legs on the chest of Lord Shiva who lies on the ground in a static state. This represents the Purusha–Prakriti aspect of Samkhya. Shiva is static absolute Brahman, Kali is the power of this Brahman to have motion. Therefore, Shiva is lying without movement and Kali is standing or dancing on him.

In some depictions, especially with respect to forms like Chinnamasta, the Shakti is shown as being in a sexual union with Shiva who is lying static on the ground. The imagery is a direct depiction of the cosmic union of Purusha and Prakriti. The fact that Brahman and his power are non-different is being depicted in this imagery. The sexual union being the physical imitation of the cosmic union, the imagery aims to highlight the cosmic and spiritual union through sexual union. Further, in certain tantrika sadhanas (tantrika practices), the sexual energy is used to attain a spiritual union.

But, these nuances are either missed or deliberately ignored in the western commentary on Hinduism. Their understanding and interpretation of Goddess Kali is completely alien to Hindu world-view. This freedom of expression without concepts like blasphemy is being misused by certain quarters of western academia, media, and entertainment industry. The tantrika philosophy and spirituality is dismissed as superstition and in their place, perverse, incorrect, and non-existent meanings are being attached to Goddess Kali and other Hindu deities and symbols. But, all is not lost.

Read more:

http://bit.ly/2zzbVMq

Image:

The Goddess Kali

By Richard B. Godfrey (England, born 1728)

India, West Bengal, Kolkata (Calcutta) (?), 1770

Credit: Museum Associates, dba Los Angeles County Museum of Art

Raghav-Yadviyam Kavya

" दक्षिण का एक ग्रन्थ "

क्या ऐसा संभव है कि जब आप किताब को सीधा पढ़े तो रामायण की कथा पढ़ी जाए और जब उसी किताब में लिखे शब्दों को उल्टा करके पढ़े
तो कृष्ण भागवत की कथा सुनाई दे।

जी हां, कांचीपुरम के 17वीं शदी के कवि वेंकटाध्वरि रचित ग्रन्थ "राघवयादवीयम्" ऐसा ही एक अद्भुत ग्रन्थ है।

इस ग्रन्थ को
‘अनुलोम-विलोम काव्य’ भी कहा जाता है। पूरे ग्रन्थ में केवल 30 श्लोक हैं। इन श्लोकों को सीधे-सीधे
पढ़ते जाएँ, तो रामकथा बनती है और
विपरीत (उल्टा) क्रम में पढ़ने पर कृष्णकथा। इस प्रकार हैं तो केवल 30 श्लोक, लेकिन कृष्णकथा के भी 30 श्लोक जोड़ लिए जाएँ तो बनते हैं 60 श्लोक।

पुस्तक के नाम से भी यह प्रदर्शित होता है, राघव (राम) + यादव (कृष्ण) के चरित को बताने वाली गाथा है ~ "राघवयादवीयम।"

उदाहरण के तौर पर पुस्तक का पहला श्लोक हैः

वंदेऽहं देवं तं श्रीतं रन्तारं कालं भासा यः ।
रामो रामाधीराप्यागो लीलामारायोध्ये वासे ॥ १॥

अर्थातः
मैं उन भगवान श्रीराम के चरणों में प्रणाम करता हूं, जो
जिनके ह्रदय में सीताजी रहती है तथा जिन्होंने अपनी पत्नी सीता के लिए सहयाद्री की पहाड़ियों से होते हुए लंका जाकर रावण का वध किया तथा वनवास पूरा कर अयोध्या वापिस लौटे।

विलोमम्:

सेवाध्येयो रामालाली गोप्याराधी भारामोराः ।
यस्साभालंकारं तारं तं श्रीतं वन्देऽहं देवम् ॥ १॥

अर्थातः
मैं रूक्मिणी तथा गोपियों के पूज्य भगवान श्रीकृष्ण के
चरणों में प्रणाम करता हूं, जो सदा ही मां लक्ष्मी के साथ
विराजमान है तथा जिनकी शोभा समस्त जवाहरातों की शोभा हर लेती है।

" राघवयादवीयम" के ये 60 संस्कृत श्लोक इस प्रकार हैं:-

राघवयादवीयम् रामस्तोत्राणि
वंदेऽहं देवं तं श्रीतं रन्तारं कालं भासा यः ।
रामो रामाधीराप्यागो लीलामारायोध्ये वासे ॥ १॥

विलोमम्:
सेवाध्येयो रामालाली गोप्याराधी भारामोराः ।
यस्साभालंकारं तारं तं श्रीतं वन्देऽहं देवम् ॥ १॥

साकेताख्या ज्यायामासीद्याविप्रादीप्तार्याधारा ।
पूराजीतादेवाद्याविश्वासाग्र्यासावाशारावा ॥ २॥

विलोमम्:
वाराशावासाग्र्या साश्वाविद्यावादेताजीरापूः ।
राधार्यप्ता दीप्राविद्यासीमायाज्याख्याताकेसा ॥ २॥

कामभारस्स्थलसारश्रीसौधासौघनवापिका ।
सारसारवपीनासरागाकारसुभूरुभूः ॥ ३॥

विलोमम्:
भूरिभूसुरकागारासनापीवरसारसा ।
कापिवानघसौधासौ श्रीरसालस्थभामका ॥ ३॥

रामधामसमानेनमागोरोधनमासताम् ।
नामहामक्षररसं ताराभास्तु न वेद या ॥ ४॥

विलोमम्:
यादवेनस्तुभारातासंररक्षमहामनाः ।
तां समानधरोगोमाननेमासमधामराः ॥ ४॥

यन् गाधेयो योगी रागी वैताने सौम्ये सौख्येसौ ।
तं ख्यातं शीतं स्फीतं भीमानामाश्रीहाता त्रातम् ॥ ५॥

विलोमम्:
तं त्राताहाश्रीमानामाभीतं स्फीत्तं शीतं ख्यातं ।
सौख्ये सौम्येसौ नेता वै गीरागीयो योधेगायन् ॥ ५॥

मारमं सुकुमाराभं रसाजापनृताश्रितं ।
काविरामदलापागोसमावामतरानते ॥ ६॥

विलोमम्:
तेन रातमवामास गोपालादमराविका ।
तं श्रितानृपजासारंभ रामाकुसुमं रमा ॥ ६॥

रामनामा सदा खेदभावे दया-वानतापीनतेजारिपावनते ।
कादिमोदासहातास्वभासारसा-मेसुगोरेणुकागात्रजे भूरुमे ॥ ७॥

विलोमम्:
मेरुभूजेत्रगाकाणुरेगोसुमे-सारसा भास्वताहासदामोदिका ।
तेन वा पारिजातेन पीता नवायादवे भादखेदासमानामरा ॥ ७॥

सारसासमधाताक्षिभूम्नाधामसु सीतया ।
साध्वसाविहरेमेक्षेम्यरमासुरसारहा ॥ ८॥

विलोमम्:
हारसारसुमारम्यक्षेमेरेहविसाध्वसा ।
यातसीसुमधाम्नाभूक्षिताधामससारसा ॥ ८॥

सागसाभरतायेभमाभातामन्युमत्तया ।
सात्रमध्यमयातापेपोतायाधिगतारसा ॥ ९॥

विलोमम्:
सारतागधियातापोपेतायामध्यमत्रसा ।
यात्तमन्युमताभामा भयेतारभसागसा ॥ ९॥

तानवादपकोमाभारामेकाननदाससा ।
यालतावृद्धसेवाकाकैकेयीमहदाहह ॥ १०॥

विलोमम्:
हहदाहमयीकेकैकावासेद्ध्वृतालया ।
सासदाननकामेराभामाकोपदवानता ॥ १०॥

वरमानदसत्यासह्रीतपित्रादरादहो ।
भास्वरस्थिरधीरोपहारोरावनगाम्यसौ ॥ ११॥

विलोमम्:
सौम्यगानवरारोहापरोधीरस्स्थिरस्वभाः ।
होदरादत्रापितह्रीसत्यासदनमारवा ॥ ११॥

यानयानघधीतादा रसायास्तनयादवे ।
सागताहिवियाताह्रीसतापानकिलोनभा ॥ १२॥

विलोमम्:
भानलोकिनपातासह्रीतायाविहितागसा ।
वेदयानस्तयासारदाताधीघनयानया ॥ १२॥

रागिराधुतिगर्वादारदाहोमहसाहह ।
यानगातभरद्वाजमायासीदमगाहिनः ॥ १३॥

विलोमम्:
नोहिगामदसीयामाजद्वारभतगानया ।
हह साहमहोदारदार्वागतिधुरागिरा ॥ १३॥

यातुराजिदभाभारं द्यां वमारुतगन्धगम् ।
सोगमारपदं यक्षतुंगाभोनघयात्रया ॥ १४॥

विलोमम्:
यात्रयाघनभोगातुं क्षयदं परमागसः ।
गन्धगंतरुमावद्यं रंभाभादजिरा तु या ॥ १४॥

दण्डकां प्रदमोराजाल्याहतामयकारिहा ।
ससमानवतानेनोभोग्याभोनतदासन ॥ १५॥

विलोमम्:
नसदातनभोग्याभो नोनेतावनमास सः ।
हारिकायमताहल्याजारामोदप्रकाण्डदम् ॥ १५॥

सोरमारदनज्ञानोवेदेराकण्ठकुंभजम् ।
तं द्रुसारपटोनागानानादोषविराधहा ॥ १६॥

विलोमम्:
हाधराविषदोनानागानाटोपरसाद्रुतम् ।
जम्भकुण्ठकरादेवेनोज्ञानदरमारसः ॥ १६॥

सागमाकरपाताहाकंकेनावनतोहिसः ।
न समानर्दमारामालंकाराजस्वसा रतम् ॥ १७ विलोमम्:
तं रसास्वजराकालंमारामार्दनमासन ।
सहितोनवनाकेकं हातापारकमागसा ॥ १७॥

तां स गोरमदोश्रीदो विग्रामसदरोतत ।
वैरमासपलाहारा विनासा रविवंशके ॥ १८॥

विलोमम्:
केशवं विरसानाविराहालापसमारवैः ।
ततरोदसमग्राविदोश्रीदोमरगोसताम् ॥ १८॥

गोद्युगोमस्वमायोभूदश्रीगखरसेनया ।
सहसाहवधारोविकलोराजदरातिहा ॥ १९॥

विलोमम्:
हातिरादजरालोकविरोधावहसाहस ।
यानसेरखगश्रीद भूयोमास्वमगोद्युगः ॥ १९॥

हतपापचयेहेयो लंकेशोयमसारधीः ।
राजिराविरतेरापोहाहाहंग्रहमारघः ॥ २०॥

विलोमम्:
घोरमाहग्रहंहाहापोरातेरविराजिराः ।
धीरसामयशोकेलं यो हेये च पपात ह ॥ २०॥

ताटकेयलवादेनोहारीहारिगिरासमः ।

हासहायजनासीतानाप्तेनादमनाभुवि ॥ २१॥

विलोमम्:
विभुनामदनाप्तेनातासीनाजयहासहा ।
ससरागिरिहारीहानोदेवालयकेटता ॥ २१॥

भारमाकुदशाकेनाशराधीकुहकेनहा ।
चारुधीवनपालोक्या वैदेहीमहिताहृता ॥ २२॥

विलोमम्:
ताहृताहिमहीदेव्यैक्यालोपानवधीरुचा ।
हानकेहकुधीराशानाकेशादकुमारभाः ॥ २२॥

हारितोयदभोरामावियोगेनघवायुजः ।
तंरुमामहितोपेतामोदोसारज्ञरामयः ॥ २३॥

विलोमम्:
योमराज्ञरसादोमोतापेतोहिममारुतम् ।
जोयुवाघनगेयोविमाराभोदयतोरिहा ॥ २३॥

भानुभानुतभावामासदामोदपरोहतं ।
तंहतामरसाभक्षोतिराताकृतवासविम् ॥ २४॥

विलोमम्:
विंसवातकृतारातिक्षोभासारमताहतं ।
तं हरोपदमोदासमावाभातनुभानुभाः ॥ २४॥

हंसजारुद्धबलजापरोदारसुभाजिनि ।
राजिरावणरक्षोरविघातायरमारयम् ॥ २५॥

विलोमम्:
यं रमारयताघाविरक्षोरणवराजिरा ।
निजभासुरदारोपजालबद्धरुजासहम् ॥ २५॥

सागरातिगमाभातिनाकेशोसुरमासहः ।
तंसमारुतजंगोप्ताभादासाद्यगतोगजम् ॥ २६॥

विलोमम्:
जंगतोगद्यसादाभाप्तागोजंतरुमासतं ।
हस्समारसुशोकेनातिभामागतिरागसा ॥ २६॥

वीरवानरसेनस्य त्राताभादवता हि सः ।
तोयधावरिगोयादस्ययतोनवसेतुना ॥ २७॥

विलोमम्
नातुसेवनतोयस्यदयागोरिवधायतः ।
सहितावदभातात्रास्यनसेरनवारवी ॥ २७॥

हारिसाहसलंकेनासुभेदीमहितोहिसः ।
चारुभूतनुजोरामोरमाराधयदार्तिहा ॥ २८॥

विलोमम्
हार्तिदायधरामारमोराजोनुतभूरुचा ।
सहितोहिमदीभेसुनाकेलंसहसारिहा ॥ २८॥

नालिकेरसुभाकारागारासौसुरसापिका ।
रावणारिक्षमेरापूराभेजे हि ननामुना ॥ २९॥

विलोमम्:
नामुनानहिजेभेरापूरामेक्षरिणावरा ।
कापिसारसुसौरागाराकाभासुरकेलिना ॥ २९॥

साग्र्यतामरसागारामक्षामाघनभारगौः ॥
निजदेपरजित्यास श्रीरामे सुगराजभा ॥ ३०॥

विलोमम्:
भाजरागसुमेराश्रीसत्याजिरपदेजनि ।स
गौरभानघमाक्षामरागासारमताग्र्यसा ॥ ३०॥

॥ इति श्रीवेङ्कटाध्वरि कृतं श्री ।।

कृपया अपना थोड़ा सा कीमती वक्त निकाले और उपरोक्त श्लोको को गौर से अवलोकन करें की दुनिया में कहीं भी ऐसा नही पाया गया ग्रंथ है ।

शत् शत् प्रणाम ऐसे रचनाकार को। 🙏

Connection between diff Body parts & Planets !!

Did you know that every finger in your hand is connected to a planet? ~ Sri Sri 
Every finger in your hand is connected to a planet. The thumb is connected to Mars. Mars stays alone.

Index finger is connected to Jupiter (Jupiter shows the path, it is the teacher). When you want to show something, you show using the index finger, this is Jupiter. The middle finger is connected to Saturn; Saturn is the servant. The ring finger is connected to the Sun; the Sun is the king. And who owns the jewels? The king, and so you put rings only on the ring finger. That’s why it’s called the ring finger. The little finger is connected to Mercury. So when you do chin mudra, what is happening? The index finger (Jupiter) and the thumb (Mars) are coming together, that is wisdom and power.
Why is the thumb connected to Mars? It is because whenever you win, what do you do? You put your thumbs up. Thumbs up is a sign of victory. When you lose what do you do? You put your thumbs down. So these gestures are so inbuilt in us.
Different planets affect different parts of your body. Your teeth is connected to Saturn. Your eyes are connected to the Sun, your cheeks are connected to Venus, forehead to Mercury, nose to Jupiter. I mean this as the connection of microcosm with the macrocosm. It is so fascinating!
Similarly, moods depend on the moon. A mood does not stay for more than two and a quarter day. That is the amount of time the moon is at one place. The moment the moon moves from that place; your mood also changes. And when the moon and Saturn combine, people get depressed. So these emotions, these feelings, they come and they go away. Nothing is permanent. No planet is permanently stationary in one place. They all move. But when you identify yourself with any one of these emotions, you get stuck. That’s when you don’t move. That is when it infiltrates into your body and you get sick, and all such things happen. Isn’t it fascinating? So what is the way? How to move on from that?
On a cloudy day, when a flight takes off, what does it do? It goes above the clouds, and then there is sunshine. That is what the spiritual practices are. They move us away from the Chit Akasha(the space of the mind) to the Chida Akasha(space of pure consciousness). We move beyond all the emotions.
9 planets moving through the 12 constellations brings 108 units of change. So to enhance the good effects and to reduce the malefic effects, ‘Om Namah Shivaya’ is chanted 108 times. That uplifts you, uplifts your spirit, and takes you beyond. It connects you to the Chida Akash(space of pure consciousness).

Madhava the Medieval India Mathematical Genius

Madhava of Sangamagrama (c. 1340 – c. 1425), was an Indian mathematician-astronomer from the town of Sangamagrama. His writings were later transmitted to Europe via Jesuit missionaries and traders who were active around the ancient port of Muziris at the time. As a result, it had an influence on later European developments in analysis and calculus.His birth place Sangamagrama is present-day Irinjalakuda near Thrissur, Kerala, India.

He was the first to use infinite series approximations for a range of trigonometric functions, which has been called the “decisive step onward from the finite procedures of ancient mathematics to treat their limit-passage to infinity“.

One of the greatest mathematician-astronomers of the Middle Ages, Madhava made pioneering contributions to the study of infinite series, calculus, trigonometry, geometry, and algebra.
Madhava was born as Irińńaŗappiļļy or Iriññinavaļļi Mādhava . He had written that his house name was related to the Vihar where a plant called “bakuļam” was planted. Bakuļam was locally known as “iraňňi”.

Irinjalakuda was once known as ‘Irińńāţikuţal’. Sangamagrāmam (lit. sangamam = union, grāmam = village) is a rough translation to Sanskrit from Dravidian word ‘Irińńāţikuţal’, which means ‘iru (two) ańńāţi (market) kǖţal (union)’ or the union of two markets.
Madhava provided the creative impulse for the development of a rich mathematical tradition in medieval Kerala. However, most of Madhava’s original work (except a couple of them) is lost. He is referred to in the work of subsequent Kerala mathematicians, particularly in Nilakantha Somayaji’s Tantrasangraha (c. 1500), as the source for several infinite series expansions, including sinθ and arctanθ.

The 16th-century text Mahajyānayana prakāra cites Madhava as the source for several series derivations for π. In Jyeṣṭhadeva’s Yuktibhāṣā (c. 1530), written in Malayalam, these series are presented with proofs in terms of the Taylor series expansions for polynomials like 1/(1+x2), with x = tanθ, etc.
As per the old Indian tradition of starting off new chapters with elementary content, the first four chapters of the Yuktibhasa contain elementary mathematics, such as division, proof of Pythagorean theorem, square root determination, etc.

The radical ideas are not discussed until the sixth chapter on circumference of a circle. Yuktibhasa contains the derivation and proof of the power series for inverse tangent, discovered by Madhava.
In the text, Jyesthadeva describes Madhava’s series in the following manner:

“The first term is the product of the given sine and radius of the desired arc divided by the cosine of the arc. The succeeding terms are obtained by a process of iteration when the first term is repeatedly multiplied by the square of the sine and divided by the square of the cosine. All the terms are then divided by the odd numbers 1, 3, 5, …. The arc is obtained by adding and subtracting respectively the terms of odd rank and those of even rank. It is laid down that the sine of the arc or that of its complement whichever is the smaller should be taken here as the given sine. Otherwise the terms obtained by this above iteration will not tend to the vanishing magnitude.”
This is wrongly attributed to James Gregory, who discovered it three centuries after Madhava.
Madhava laid the foundations for the development of calculus, which were further developed by his successors at the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics.

(It should be noted that certain ideas of calculus were known to earlier mathematicians.) Madhava also extended some results found in earlier works, including those of Bhāskara II.
Madhava developed some components of calculus such as differentiation, term-by-term integration, iterative methods for solutions of non-linear equations, and the theory that the area under a curve is its integral.
-Arjun Kadya

Interesting facts about AUM !!

5 Facts You May Not Know About ‘OM’
You’ve chanted OM, hundreds maybe thousands of times, and the symbol is, well, everywhere. But have you ever wondered, what it is about OM, that makes yogi’s wholeheartedly chant its glory and live in its symbolic presence?

Here are 5 facts you may not know, to help deepen your knowledge and connect your heart to this ancient sacred syllable. 

1. The sound of OM encompasses all words, all sounds in human language 

OM is a matrix of all sounds, when in its diversified form gives rise to all words used in language. 

Linguistically, all audible sounds are produced in the space within the mouth beginning at the root of the tongue and ending at the lips. The throat sound is A, and M is the lip sound; and the sound U represents the rolling forward of speech articulation which starts at the root of the tongue, continuing until it ends in the lips.

To pronounce OM correctly, remember, the sound vibration is pronounced “oom” as in home.

2. AUM and OM

In Sanskrit, the sound “O” is a diphthong spelled “AU”. A diphthong is the blending of two vowel sounds where both are normally heard and make a gliding sound. As a result, the difference between OM and AUM is simply one of transliteration. 

3. AUM represents the 3 Fold Division of Time

            A – is the waking state

            U – is the dream state

            M – is the state of deep sleep

At the end of AUM is a pause, a silence. This represents the state known as Turiya, or Infinite Consciousness

4. The visual symbol represents the meaning of AUM

The symbol OM visually consists of three curves, one semicircle, and a dot.
The large bottom curve symbolizes the waking state, A.
The middle curve signifies the dream state, U.

The upper curve denotes the state of deep sleep, M.

The dot signifies the fourth state of consciousness, Turiya.
 The semi circle at the top represents Maya and separates the dot from the other three curves. It signals to us that it is the illusion of Maya that is an obstacle to realization of the Highest.

 5. OM is associated with Ganesha

 The physical form of Lord Ganesha is said to be that of OM. The upper curve, of OM, is identified with the head or the face of Ganesh. The Lower curve his belly. The twisted curve, on the right side of OM is the trunk.

 Once you know the meaning, “Om” becomes the name of the Lord for you. Now you can call him, invoke him, pray to him. This is why many of the prayers, chants or mantras begin with “Om”. 

OM Shanti Shanti Shanti

Music & Chakras !!

The first chakra is at the base of the spine, at beginning of the anus and is called MULADHARA. Just above that is the next chakra called SVADHISTHANA. The third chakra is just above the navel called MANIPURA. Above that is the ANAHATA chakra which is in the center of the chest. Then is the throat chakra called VISSHUDHA. Above that is the chakra in-between the eyebrows called AJNA. The last chakra is on top of the head called SAHASRARA.

The drums affect the Mooladhara (the base chakra or the first chakra). The big and small drums, their effect is from the Mooladhara to Swadishtana(second chakra). The big wind instruments like trumpets affect the second to third chakra (Swadhisthana to the Manipura). Metallic sounds affect the Manipura to Anahata(the fourth chakra). When you hear a metallic screech, something happens in your belly. How many people have noticed this? The string instrument has its affects from the naval to the heart. Veena and Sitar – stringed instruments affects the Anahata (the heart chakra).

Flute music, wind instruments and sometimes the piano sounds affect the Anahata to Vishudhi (the throat chakra). Bells, sounds of water, bird songs, very soft and subtle sounds have its effects from throat to the Agna Chakra (in between the eyebrows). Then finally the Sahasrara the (top of the head) is affected by meditation and all other instruments put together at once.

If you watch any Indian rituals, you will understand that they knew this. In the temples, they placed the drums on the periphery, then there are the big wind instruments, and on the very inside of the sanctum sanctorum are bells and conch. So, sound vibes are balanced from the drums to the wind instruments, then stringed instruments, then again wind instruments and then bells and finally, it all ends in silence. The purpose of sound is silence. Did you all know this? Sound originates from silence and its goal is silence. Silence simply means total harmony. When there is total harmony deep within you, then even sound seems like an object, it seems heavy. But the way is through sound, through music. Music is that which connects the individual to the universal. The limited mind expands through music and realizes it is already part of the big consciousness or the big mind.

~ Sri Sri Ravi Shankar

Clapping 

7 Amazing Benefits of Clapping 👏👏👏👏👏
👏 “Clapping” a simple striking of hands but it’s much more than we think..Normally people clap to appreciate others for their good works and achievements or when they are in mood of joy. People also clap while singing songs, bhajans, and prayers at holy places. It is scientifically proved that clapping is very effective exercise to cure many human diseases.

    👏Clapping activates the receptors in the palms and cause activation of the . large area of the brain which leads the improvement in health. There are 39 different acupressure points for almost all organs on our palm which are activated by clapping and this action improves ur health slowly but effectively. Daily 10-20 minutes of clapping in morning keeps you fit and active. 👏👏                                         

 1. 👏Best Cure for Digestive disorder: Clapping is an effective exercise for the person who suffers from digestive disorder. 
  2. 👏Best Cure for back pain, neck pain, joint pain.. 

 3. 👏Best Cure for gout: Gout is a common problem with old age people and can be easily cured by clapping.

          

4. 👏Helpful for patients of low blood pressure.

                          

 5. 👏Best exercise for heart and lungs: If someone is suffering from any heart and lung related diseases, then clapping plays important role in curing these diseases also. 

Clapping removes the obstacles from the main and collateral channels and keeps you fit and healthy. 6.👏Best exercise for children: Children that practice clapping exercise daily make only few spelling mistake and are work with more zeal than others. Helps also to improve their handwriting. The whole abstract of above given points is, clapping sharpens the brain of children.

                       

7. 👏Improves the immune system: Clapping increases the immunity of a person n provides strength to the human body to fight against many diseases.                   

👏🌺😊🌹🙌🌹👋🎄👏

OM Chanting !!

Benefits of the OM Mantra
★ Chanting of OM Mantra purifies the environment around the chanter and produces positive vibrations.
★ The OM not only gives positive results to the one who is chanting it but to the entire vicinity wherever its vibrations flow.
★ It cleanses your aura.
★ It takes you alpha, a meditational state which gives you deep relaxation.
★ Your concentration increases when you chant this universal hymn.
★ The ॐ chanting removes toxin from your body. It gives you better immunity and self-healing power.
★ It improves your concentration and helps you focus on your target.
★ The ॐ chanting improves your voice and gives a strength to vocal cord and muscles during old age.
★ The ॐ chanting produces a vibration and sound which is felt in your vocal cord and sinus. It opens pore which in turn helps in removal of sinus problems gradually and if done in complete faith.
★ Om Mantra has a cardiovascular benefit too which keeps blood pressure normal.
★ It helps in keeping your emotions controlled and thus by putting a control over emotions and leads you to excel in life.
★ It is just like any other supplement that will help in the overall development of your body and mind positively without any side effects.
★ It regular chanting helps in taking you to a spiritual journey and which will only result if it is done daily for a longer period of time.
★ When OM Mantra chanted in group produces immense positive vibrations which charge up the entire vicinity.
★ Even the attendants feel fully charged up even though a person is completely tired.
★ Some people also claims to lose weight through ॐ chanting As it puts your entire body in work and its vibrations affects you positively hence enhancing your metabolism which leads to weight loss.
★ Om cleanses your skin and gives a sunny glow on your face when you chant OM regularly.
★ When you tend to chant it regularly you start feeling stronger.
★ Spinal cord efficiency is also increased by vibrations caused by sound of Aaaa. As this sound is generated from abdomen and mainly supported by spinal cord.
★ The sound uuu is created by vocal cord which affects thyroid glands and throat.
★ Even a picture of OM purifies the environment around.
★ It is said that rubbing hands while ॐ chanting and putting those charged hands on different parts of body heals or activates those body parts.
★ If those rubbed hands are put on your eyes your eye sight will start improving.
★ And if rubbed on your face, it can give you a great personality.
★ It is proved that chanting this Mantra improvises quality of water. So before drinking if OM is chanted it puts water crystal in most beautiful sequence, which effects the body beautifully.

Kriya Yoga

What is kriya Yoga .?
Kriya Yoga is a simple, psychophysiological method by which the human blood is decarbonized and recharged with oxygen. The atoms of this extra oxygen are transmuted into life current to rejuvenate the brain and spinal centers.1 By stopping the accumulation of venous blood, the yogi is able to lessen or prevent the decay of tissues, the advanced yogi transmutes his cells into pure energy.

Elijah, Jesus, Kabir and other prophets were past masters in the use of Kriya or a similar technique, by which they caused their bodies to dematerialize at will.

. From “Autobiography of a Yogi” by Paramahansa Yogananda ji _/\_

Ganesha & its symbolism !!

Ganesha is the formless Divinity – encapsulated in a magnificent form, for the benefit of the devotee.
Gan means group. The universe is a group of atoms and different energies. This universe would be in chaos if there was no supreme law governing these diverse groups of entities.
The Lord of all these groups of atoms and energies is Ganesha.
He is the supreme consciousness that pervades all and brings order in this universe.

The essence of Ganesha is brought out beautifully by Adi Shankara.
Though Ganesha is worshiped as the elephant-headed God, the form (swaroop) is just to bring out the formless (parabrahma roopa) .
He is, ‘Ajam Nirvikalpam Niraakaaramekam.‘ This means Ganesha is Ajam (unborn), he is Nirvikalpa(attributeless), he is Niraakaar (formless) and he symbolizes the consciousness which is omnipresent.
Ganesha is the same energy which is the reason for this universe. It is the energy from which everything manifests and into which everything will dissolve.

We are all familiar with the story of how Ganesha became the elephant-headed God.
Parvati became dirty when she was celebrating with Shiva. When she realized this, she removed the dirt from her body and created a boy out of it. She then asked him to keep guard while she bathed.
When Shiva returned, the boy did not recognize him and obstructed his passage. So Shiva chopped off the boy’s head and entered.
Parvati was shocked when she saw this. She explained to Shiva that the boy was their son and pleaded with Shiva to save him at all costs.
Shiva then instructed his helpers to go and get the head of someone who was sleeping with their head pointing to the north. The helpers then got the head of an elephant, which Shiva affixed to the boy’s torso and Ganesha was born!

Does this story sound strange?
Why should Parvati have dirt on her body?
Didn’t the all-knowing Shiva recognize His own son?
Was Shiva, the epitome of peace, so short-tempered that he cut off the head of his own son? And why an elephant head on Ganesha?
There is a deeper meaning to all this.

Parvati is symbolic of festive energy. Her becoming dirty signifies that celebration can easily become Rajasik, or feverish and can take you away from your center. Dirt is symbolic of ignorance, and Shiva is symbolic of the Supreme Innocence, Peace and Knowledge.
So when Ganesha obstructs the path of Shiva, this means that ignorance, which is an attribute of the head, does not recognize knowledge. Then knowledge has to overcome ignorance. This is the symbolism behind Shiva chopping off the boy’s head.

And why the elephant head?
Elephant represents both GYAN SHAKTI and KARMA SHAKTI.
The principle qualities of the elephant are wisdom and effortlessness. The enormous head of the elephant signifies Wisdom and Knowledge.
Elephants don’t walk around obstacles, neither are they stopped by them. They just remove them and walk ahead – signifying effortlessness.
So, when we worship Lord Ganesha these elephant qualities within us are kindled and we take on these qualities.

Ganesha’s big belly represents generosity and total acceptance. Ganesha’s upraised hand, depicting protection, means, ‘Fear not, I am with you’, and his lowered hand, palm facing outwards means endless giving as well as an invitation to bow down, this is symbolic of the fact that we will all dissolve into earth one day.
Ganesha also has a single tusk which signifies one-pointedness. Even the implements Ganesha wields are symbolic.
He carries in his hands, the ‘Ankusa’ (signifying awakening) and the ‘Paasa’ (signifying control). With awakening, a lot of energy is released, which without proper control, can go haywire.

And why does Ganesha, the elephant-headed God travel on something as small as a mouse? Isn’t that so incongruous? Again there is symbolism that runs deep.
The mouse snips and nibbles away at ropes that bind. The mouse is like the mantra which can cut through sheaths and sheaths of ignorance, leading to the ultimate knowledge represented by Ganesha!

Our ancient Rishis were so deeply intelligent that they chose to express Divinity in terms of symbols rather than words, since words change over time, but symbols remain unchanged.
Let us keep the deep symbolism in mind as we experience the omnipresent in the form of the elephant God, yet be fully aware that Ganesha is very much within us. This is the wisdom we should carry as we celebrate Ganesh Chaturti.

Khajurao Temples

WHY SEX ON TEMPLES ?

The ancient art was not only art; it was, deep down, mysticism. Deep down, it was out of meditation.
It was objective, in Gurdjieff’s terminology. It was made so that if somebody meditates over it, he starts falling into those depths where God lives.’
Khajuraho or Konark — if you meditate there, you will know what the Tantra masters were doing. They were creating in stone something that is felt in the ultimate orgasmic joy.
It was the most difficult thing to do, to bring ecstasy into the stone. And if the stone can show the ecstasy, then everybody can move into that ecstasy easily.
But people who go to Khajuraho are foolish people.
They look either at Khajuraho sculpture as obscene — then they miss the whole point, then they are seeing something which is within their own unconscious; or they are too moralistic — then they don’t meditate on any statues, they are in a hurry to get out of the temple somehow, they just throw glances.
Khajuraho sculpture is not just to see, it is for meditation.
Sit silently and meditate for hours. If one goes to Khajuraho, one should live at least for three months there, so he can meditate on each possible inner posture of orgasmic joy.
And then, slowly slowly, the at-onement, slowly slowly, the harmony; then suddenly you are transported into another world — the world of those mystics who created this temple. This is objective art….
Indian sexology has existed at least for five thousand years.
The oldest sexual scripture is five thousand years old — Vatsyayana’s Kamasutras. And in the time of Vatsyayana, writing sutras on sex — kama means sex — maxims for sex, guidelines for sex, was not thought to be a bad act; Vatsyayana is respected as one of the great seers of India, and it is said that only a seer like Vatsyayana could have given those beautiful sutras.
They reveal the intricacies and the mysteries of the energy of sex, and how it can be transformed.
These temples in Khajuraho have, on the outer side, beautiful women, beautiful men, and all in love postures. Inside there are no love postures. Inside you will find the temple empty, not even a statue of God.
The idea is that unless you pass through your sexuality with full awareness, in all its phases, in all its dimensions — unless you come to a point when sex has no meaning for you…only then you enter the temple. Otherwise you are outside the temple, your interest is there.
So that was a symbol that if you are still interested in sex, then the temple is not for you.
But the message is not against sex; it is the outer wall of the temple, the temple is made of it, and you have to pass through the door and go beyond. And the beyond is nothing but utter emptiness.

~ Osho, The Book of Wisdom…

Beef eating mischief in Hinduism

Throughout the Vedas the cow is called a non-killable animal, or “aghnya.”

According to “An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Sanskrit on Historical Principles” (Vol. I, Deccan College, Poona),
“aghnya” means “not to be killed or violated” and is used for cows and for waters in the presence of which oaths were taken.

The Rig and Sama Veda call the cow “aghnya” and “Aditi”, ie. not to be murdered (Rig 1-64-27; 5-83-8; 7-68-9; 1-164-40; 8-69-2; 9-1-9; 9-93-3; 10-6-11; 10-87-16). They extol the cow as un-killable, un-murderable, whose milk purifies the mind and keeps it free from sin. Verse 10-87-16 prescribes severe punishment for the person who kills a cow. The Atharva Veda recommends beheading (8-3-16) for such a crime; the Rig Veda advocates expulsion from the kingdom (8-101-15).

Hence, it seems unlikely that the cow would be slaughtered to entertain guests, as claimed by Marxist historians. But before coming to any conclusion, the archaeological evidence should also be examined. Archaeologists have excavated bones of cattle in huge quantity, “cattle” is a collective noun which includes the cow, bull, buffalo, nilgai and all other bovine animals. Nowhere in the world can experts differentiate between the bones of cows and other cattle recovered from excavations. There are good reasons for this difficulty. Most of the bones found are not whole carcasses, but large pieces of limbs. Experts feel that these could be the remains of animals that died naturally and were skinned for their hide and bones. Ancient man used bones to make knives and other tools; the splintered bones found could be part of the tool-making exercise. In all honesty, therefore, cattle bone finds do not prove cow slaughter or the eating of cow meat, especially when all literary evidence points in the opposite direction.

There has been talk about cut-marks on the bones. But apart from tool-making, even if a tanner skins dead cattle for the hide, he will inflict cut marks on the carcass. Scientifically, it is not possible to say if the marks on the bones are ante-mortem or post-mortem. This can be determined only where the body is intact (animal or human), by analyzing blood vessels, tissue, rigor mortis and other factors. Fortunately, there is now clinching evidence why the Marxist claim on cow-flesh rests on false premises. As already stated, the allegation rests mainly on literary sources and their interpretation, and we are in a position to trace the source of the mischief – the Vachaspatyam of Pandit Taranath and his British mentors.

Pandit Taranath, a professor of grammar at the Calcutta Sanskrit College, compiled a six-volume Sanskrit-to-Sanskrit dictionary, which is used by scholars to this day. The Vachaspatyam is a valuable guide for scholars because there are certain words in the samhita (mantra) section of the Vedas that are not found later in the Puranas. What most Sanskrit scholars have failed to notice is that Taranath artfully corrupted the meanings of a few crucial words of the Vedic samhita to endorse the meaning given by Max Muller in his translation of the Vedas. Swami Prakashanand Saraswati has exposed this beautifully in “The True History and the Religion of India, A Concise Encyclopedia of Authentic Hinduism” (Motilal Banarsidass).

The British idea was that Max Muller would translate the Rig Veda “in such a scornful manner that Hindus themselves should begin to reproach their own religion of the Vedas,” while a Hindu pandit would “compile an elaborate Sanskrit dictionary that should exhibit disgraceful meanings of certain words of the Vedic mantras.” As Hindus would not question a dictionary by a Hindu pandit, the British would be able to claim that whatever Max Muller wrote about the Vedas was according to the dictionary of the Hindus.

Swami Prakashanand Saraswati focuses on two words – goghn and ashvamedh. “Goghn” means a guest who receives a cow as gift. Panini created a special sutra to establish the rule that goghn will only mean the receiver of a cow (and will not be used in any other sense). But Taranath ignored Panini’s injunction and wrote that “goghn” means “the killer of a cow.” He similarly converted the ashvamedh yagna from ‘ritual worship of the horse’ to the “killing of the horse.”

The Swami proves the British hand in this mischief through the patronage given to Taranath by the Government of Bengal in 1866, when Lt. Governor Sir Cecil Beadon sanctioned ten thousand rupees for two hundred copies of his dictionary. This was a king’s ransom in those days, as even in the 1930s the headmaster of a vernacular primary school received a salary of twenty rupees a month. Today, ten thousand rupees is the equivalent of two million rupees.

When the basic premise upon which all modern translations rest is thus knocked off its pedestal, what beef is left in the theory that Vedic Hindus enjoyed the flesh of the cow.

Beef eating busted – Feb 2010

Truth about CASTE SYSTEM

The Betrayal : Truth of Origin of Caste system in India

There were no castes in Hinduism, but Job trades which were chosen by people suited to what they could achieve.
The word caste comes from Europe not India, in fact the word CASTE comes from the Portuguese word “CASTAS” and the Portuguese got it from the Latin word “CASTUS” which meant RACE.
The words “CASTE” and “DALIT”, were the creation of European Christian Missionaries in Europe. The term “DALIT” was created in Scottish Christian Missionary school in around 1835 AD, and their number were made to grow more, under the exploitations by Britishers via colonialism.

Hindu scriptures were written in Sanskrit & not English, Portuguese or Latin, and the word used in scriptures is VARNA. The word VARNA translated into English loosely means “sort into natural quality’s”. As one is to one translation of Sanskrit to English language is almost impossible, So the chances of erring are high. Hence the distortions of the translated Scriptures from Sanskrit to English were high some on FOUL Purpose, some due to lack of words while some due to lack of understanding.

“Rishi Bhrigu” and “Rishi Bhardwaj” played the pioneer work of framing the VARNASHRAM / VARNA SYSTEM.
The main idea for creation of VARNA System was to use the NATURAL division of Labour, Human Psyche, Human Nature & Spiritual Evolution (Gunas) for the division of Labour & Power in a society so that POWER should not be concentrated in the hands of few people or a particular community but equally spread among all the people of the society. The Ultimate AIM of all Humans was Liberation / Salvation / Perfection & every one must strive for it no matter to which VARNA he or she belongs. Moral Code of Conduct were laid for all the VARNAS as per the Laws of DHARMA (Truth). SO in Short everything revolved around DHARMA & Salvation.
Unlike Modern times Money or Wealth or Fame was never the center of Ambition of Human Consciousness & people have become money minded, mean & selfish there by falling in DHARMA.

The VARNASHRAMS broadly were divided as follows –
1. BRAHMANA – Knowledge seekers – The Sole purpose of Brahmana was to gain higher spiritual levels by knowledge & practice. They were the ones responsible for educating & guiding the society on the path of DHARMA (Truth). (Similar to Scientists & teachers in modern times)
2. KSHATRIYAS – Power Seekers – They were responsible for protecting the society from foreign aggression & maintain harmony in the society. They were supposed to rule the land as per the guidance from Brahmanas (Gurus) in accordance with the laws of DHARMA (Truth). (Similar to Armed forces in modern times)
3. VAISHYAS – Wealth seekers – They were supposed to serve the society by practicing fair trade means as per the principles of DHARMA (Truth). They were the wealth owners & were supposed to help the Brahmanas & the Kshatriyas Financially in times of crisis. Thus they maintained the Economy of the land. (Similar to Entrepreneurs & Business men in modern times)
4. SHUDRAS – Labourers – People not skilled in the above three but who loved helping & serving others were supposed to work for them as per the principles of DHARMA (Truth). Shudras were meant to act as a support system to all the above three at all levels from farms to Shoe making to Pottery to rearing cattle etc. (Similar like a Job or a Service class working people in modern times)

Below are the excerpts from OSHO’s lecture about VARNA System – Ref – Krishna the Man & his Philosophy.

“India has made four broad divisions or categories on the basis of individuality. What is popularly known as VARNA is nothing but broad categorizations of human beings on the basis of their own individualities. These categories are not specific and exclusive. Not that two brahmins or intellectuals are the same; they are not. Not even
two kshatriyas or warriors are the same. But there is certainly a similarity between those known as kshatriyas. These categorizations were made after in depth study of man’s nature. There is someone who derives his life’s joy only through work – he is a workman, a shudra. Not that he is a lowly being because of his being a shudra – it is grievously wrong to think so – but unfortunately this mistaken interpretation did receive wide acceptance, for which the wise people who originally conceived it are not responsible. The responsibility should lie with those ignorant people who imposed their wrong interpretations of VARNA on society. The wise ones said only this much, that there are people who can find their joy only through work, through service. If they are deprived of their work they will be unhappy, they will lose their souls.

After studying millions of human beings over a long stretch of time we decided to divide mankind into four broad categories. There was nothing hierarchical about this division, no category was higher or lower than the other. But the foolish pundits, the foolish scholars, took no time in reducing it into a hierarchy, which created all the mischief. The categorization of four VARNAS is, in itself, very scientific. but to turn it into a hierarchy was unfortunate and unhealthy. It was not necessary at all.

The division of mankind into VARNAS represents an insight, and a deep insight at that. Therefore Krishna tells Arjuna. ”Know rightly who you are. It is better to die upholding your self-nature than to live as a second-hand man. That is sheer madness.””

As per Swami Chidanand Sarawati Ji – “The VARNA system was based on a person’s characteristics, temperament and their innate “nature.” The Vedas describe one’s nature as being a mixture of the three gunas – tamas, rajas and sattva. Depending on the relative proportions of each of these gunas, one would be classified as a Brahmin, Kshetriya, Vaishya or Shudra. For example, Brahmins who perform much of the intellectual, creative and spiritual work within a community have a high proportion of Sattva and low proportions of Tamas and Rajas. A Kshatriya who is inclined toward political, administrative and military work has a high proportion of Rajas, a medium proportion of Sattva and a low proportion of Tamas. A Vaishya who performs the tasks of businessman, employer and skilled laborer also has a high proportion of Rajas but has relatively equal proportions of Sattva and Tamas, both of which are lower than Rajas. Last, a Shudra who performs the unskilled labor in society has a high proportion of Tamas, a low proportion of Sattva and a medium proportion of Rajas.

These gunas are not inherited. They are based on one’s inherent nature and one’s karma. Therefore one’s VARNA was also not supposed to be based on heredity, and in the past it was not. It is only in relatively modern times that the strict, rigid, heredity-based “caste” system has come into existence.There are many examples in the scriptures and in history of people transcending the “class” or VARNA into which they were born. Everyone was free to choose an occupation according to his/her guna and karma.

Further, according to the scriptures, there is no hierarchy at all inherent in the VARNA system. All parts are of equal importance and equal worth. A good example is to imagine a human body. The brain which thinks, plans and guides represents the Brahmin caste. The hands and arms which fight, protect and work represent the Kshatriya caste. The stomach which serves as the source of energy and “transactions” represents the Vaishya caste, and the legs/feet which do the necessary running around in the service of the rest of the body represent the Shudra caste. No one can say the brain is better than the legs or that hands are superior to feet. Each is equally important for the overall functioning of the body system. They just serve different roles. ”

Thus VARNA system was also based on Spiritual evolution of a person along with other factors & it acted as a support for its further progress.

Maharishi Ved Vyasa who assembled & divided the vast Vedic literature was born to a fisher women. Maharishi Valmiki was considered as child of a Dalit women was a bandit. Kalidasa one of the greatest poet of our country was a Hunter. Maharishi Vishwamitra was born in Kshatriya family & many more examples are present to prove that the VARNAS were not based on BIRTH but by OCCUPATION.

Some of the advantages of VARNA System / Class System were
1. There was clear division of Power in the society
2. There was also clear division of labour.
3. Inter VARNA mobility was allowed based on merit
4. There was no unemployment as people were aware of their jobs & trades to pursue.
5. There was no competition among masses as people were satisfied with their work and money & wealth was not the focus but Salvation/Liberation.
6. Skilled labour was available as generation after generation people mastered their work & passed on the secrtes to their successive future generations.
7. Society was stable in structure hence it could survive thousands of years of Human evolution.
8. There was no such dark ages like Europe because of church extremism resulting in Renaissance in medieval times.
9. Every village was a self sufficient society independent in almost all sectors of life, thereby making INDIA one of the richest lands in all respects in ancient times.

Thus Indian History & Indian Culture has been purposely misinterpreted with malicious intent by the colonizers to show their supremacy & spread their Evangelical activities for conversions.

This point has been further explained by Rajiv Malhotra an Indian Born Historian settled in the US in the following Video

Beef eating in VEDAS – BUSTED

The material presented here is based on a thorough and objective analysis of roots of Vedic words, the context in which they appear, Vedic Vocabulary, Philology, Grammar and other tools critical for correct interpretation of the Vedic mantras. Thus this research series does not merely rely on blind reproduction of works of Max Muller, Griffith, Wilson, Williams and other indologists on Vedas and Vedic language. While they are more popular in contemporary western academia, we have objective reasons to conclude that their works are far from authoritative. We shall explore this facet in more detail in this research series.

Welcome to this first part of the research series on critical evaluation of Misconceptions surrounding the Vedas – the first books of knowledge on earth.

For centuries aspersions have been cast upon the Vedas; the primary holy scriptures of the Hindus of having unholy contents. If one really started believing in those aspersions, the entire Hindu philosophy, culture, and traditions would reduce to nothing but savagery, barbarism and cannibalism.

The Vedas – the very roots of Hinduism, rather the first source of knowledge on earth – are meant for guiding the actions of human being in order to lead a blissful life.

This slanderous campaign has been unleashed by different vested interests to embarrass Hindus around the world citing specific references from the Vedas.

This also comes handy in convincing poor and illiterate Indians to give up their faith on the grounds that their fundamental holy books – the Vedas – contain all the inhuman elements like denigration of women, meat-eating, polygamy, casteism and above all – beef eating.

The Vedas are also accused of animal sacrifice in sacrificial ceremonies popularly known as the YAJNA. Interestingly a section of home-bred intellectuals claiming to have deep study of ancient India has also come up, who cite references from works of western indologists to prove such unholy content in the Vedas.

Saying that the Vedas permit beef-eating and cow-slaughter amounts to striking a lethal blow to a Hindu’s soul. Respect for cow forms a core tenet of Hinduism. Once you are able to convince him of flaws in the foundation of this core tenet and make him feel guilty, he becomes an easy prey for the predator faiths. There are millions of ill-informed Hindus who are not empowered to counter argue and hence quietly surrender.

The vested interests that malign the Vedas are not confined to foreign and home-bred indologists alone. A certain class among Hindus exploited the rest of the population including the socially and economically weaker sections by forcing them to believe and follow what they said in the name of Vedas or else face the wrath.

All the slanders heaped upon the Vedas can be attributed mainly to the interpretations of commentaries written by Mahidhar, Uvat and Saayan in the medieval times; and to what Vam-margis or the Tantra cult propagated in their books in the name of the Vedas.

In due course the falsehood spread far and wide and they became even more deep rooted when western scholars with their half baked knowledge of Sanskrit transliterated these interpretations of commentaries of Sayan and Mahidhar, in the name of translating the Vedas.

However, they lacked the pre-requisite understanding of Shiksha (Phonetics), Vyakarana (Grammar), Nirukta (Philology), Nighantu (Vocabulary), Chhanda (Prosody), Jyotish (Astronomy), Kalpa and so on that are critical for correct interpretation of the Vedas.

Section 1: No violence against animals

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Yasmintsarvaani bhutaanyaatmaivaabhuudvijaanatah
Tatra ko mohah kah shokah ekatvamanupasyatah
Yajurveda 40.7

“Those who see all beings as souls do not feel infatuation or anguish at their sight, for they experience oneness with them”.
How could people who believed in the doctrines of indestructibility, transmigration dare to kill living animals in yajnas? They might be seeing the souls of their own near and dear ones of bygone days residing in those living beings.
———————————————
Anumantaa vishasitaa nihantaa krayavikrayee
Samskartaa chopahartaa cha khadakashcheti ghaatakaah
Manusmrithi 5.51
Those who permit slaying of animals; those who bring animals for slaughter; those who slaughter; those who sell meat; those who purchase meat; those who prepare dish out of it; those who serve that
meat and those who eat are all murderers.
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Breehimattam yavamattamatho maashamatho tilam
Esha vaam bhaago nihito ratnadheyaaya dantau maa hinsishtam pitaram maataram cha
Atharvaveda 6.140.2

O teeth! You eat rice, you eat barley, you gram and you eat sesame. These cereals are specifically meant for you. Do not kill those who are capable of being fathers and mothers.
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Ya aamam maansamadanti paurusheyam cha ye kravih
Garbhaan khaadanti keshavaastaanito naashayaamasi
Atharvaveda 8.6.23

We ought to destroy those who eat cooked as well as uncooked meat, meat involving destruction of males and females, foetus and eggs.
——————————————-
Anago hatya vai bheema kritye
Maa no gaamashvam purusham vadheeh
Atharvaveda 10.1.29

It is definitely a great sin to kill innocents. Do not kill our cows, horses and people.

How could there be justification of cow and other animals being killed when killing is so clearly prohibited in the Vedas?
———————————————
Aghnyaa yajamaanasya pashoonpahi
Yajurveda 1.1

“O human! animals are Aghnya – not to be killed. Protect the animals”
———————————————
Pashunstraayethaam
Yajurveda 6.11

Protect the animals.
———————————————
Dwipaadava Chatushpaatpaahi
Yajurveda 14.8

Protect the bipeds and quadrupeds!
———————————————-
Kravy da –kravya[ meat obtained from slaughter] + Ada [ the eater]—the meat eater.

Pisacha — pisita [meat] +asa [eater]—the meat eater.

Asutrpa — Asu [breath of life] + trpa [one who satisfies himself on]—one who takes others life for his meals.

Garba da and Anda da – the foetus and egg eaters.

Mans da – the meat eaters

Meat eaters have always been looked down in Vedic literature. They have been known as Rakshasas, Pisacha and so on….All these words are synonyms of demons or devils that have been out-cast from the civilized human society.
——————————————–
Urjam no dhehi dwipade chatushpade
Yajurveda 11.83

“May all bipeds and quadrupeds gain strength and nourishment”

This mantra is recited by Hindus before every meal. How could the same philosophy which prays for well-being of every soul in every moment of life, approve of killing animals?

Section 2: No violence in Yajna

Yajna never meant animal sacrifice in the sense popularly understood. Yajna in the Vedas meant a noble deed or the highest purifying action.

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Adhvara iti Yajnanaama – Dhvaratihimsaakarmaa tatpratishedhah
Nirukta 2.7

According to Yaaska Acharya, one of the synonyms of Yajna in Nirukta or the Vedic philology is Adhvara.

Dhvara means an act with himsa or violence. And therefore a-dhvara means an act involving no himsa or no violence. There are a large number of such usage of Adhvara in the Vedas.
———————————————

In the post-Mahabharata period, misinterpretation of the Vedas and interpolations in other scriptures took place at various points intime. Acharya Shankar reestablished the Vedic values to an extent.

In the more recent times, Swami Dayanand Saraswati – known as the grandfather of modern India – interpreted the Vedas as per thecorrect rules of the language and authentic evidences. His literature, which includes commentary on the Vedas, Satyarth Prakash loosely translated as Light of Truth, An Introduction to the Vedas and other texts led to widespread social reformation based on Vedic philosophy and dispelling of myths surrounding the Vedas.

Let us discover what the Vedas have to say on Yajna.

————————————–
Agne yam yagnamadhvaram vishwatah pari bhuurasi
Sa id deveshu gacchati
Rigveda 1.1.4

O lord of effulgence! The non-violent Yajna, you prescribe from all sides, is beneficial for all, touches divine proportions and is accepted by noble souls.
—————————————-

The Rigveda describes Yajna as Adhvara or non violent throughout. Same is the case with all the other Vedas. How can it be then concluded that the Vedas permit violence or slaughter of animals?

The biggest accusation of cattle and cow slaughter comes in the context of the Yajnas that derived their names from different cattle like the Ashwamedh Yajna, the Gomedha Yajna and the Nar-medh Yajna. Even by the wildest stretch of the imagination the word Medha would not mean slaughter in this context.

It’s interesting to note what Yajurveda says about a horse
——————————————————–
Imam ma himsirekashafam pashum kanikradam vaajinam vaajineshu
Yajurveda 13.48

Do not slaughter this one hoofed animal that neighs and who goes with a speed faster than most of the animals.
———————————————————-

Aswamedha does not mean horse sacrifice at Yajna. Instead the Yajurveda clearly mentions that a horse ought not to be slaughtered.

In Shathapatha, Ashwa is a word for the nation or empire

The word medha does not mean slaughter. It denotes an act done in accordance to the intellect Alternatively it could mean consolidation, as evident from the root meaning of medha i.e. medhru san-ga-me

Raashtram vaa ashwamedhah
Annam hi gau
Agnirvaa ashwah
Aajyam medhah
(Shatpath 13.1.6.3)

Swami Dayananda Saraswati wrote in his Light of Truth:

A Yajna dedicated to the glory, wellbeing and prosperity of the Rashtra the nation or empire is known as the Ashwamedh yajna.

“To keep the food pure or to keep the senses under control, or to make the food pure or to make a good use of the rays of Sun or keep the earth free from impurities[clean] is called Gomedha Yajna”.

“The word Gau also means the Earth and the yajna dedicated to keep the Earth the environment clean is called Gomedha Yajna”

“The cremation of the body of a dead person in accordance with the principles laid down in the Vedas is called Naramedha Yajna”.
———————————————–
Section 3: No beef in Vedas

Not only the Vedas are against animal slaughter but also vehemently oppose and prohibit cow slaughter.Yajurveda forbids killing of cows, for they provide energizing food for human beings

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Ghrtam duhaanaamaditim janaayaagne maa himsiheeh
Yajurveda 13.49

Do not kill cows and bulls who always deserve to be protected.

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Aare gohaa nrhaa vadho vo astu
Rigveda 7.56.17

In Rigveda cow slaughter has been declared a heinous crime equivalent to human murder and it has been said that those who commits this crime should be punished.
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Sooyavasaad bhagavatee hi bhooyaa atho vayam bhagvantah syaama
Addhi trnamaghnye vishwadaaneem piba shuddhamudakamaacharantee
Rigveda 1.164.40 or Atharv 7.73.11 or Atharv 9.10.20

The Aghnya cows – which are not to be killed under any circumstances– may keep themselves healthy by use of pure water and green grass, so that we may be endowed with virtues, knowledge and wealth.

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The Vedic Lexicon, Nighantu, gives amongst other synonyms of Gau[ or cow] the words Aghnya. Ahi, and Aditi. Yaska the commentator on Nighantu, defines these as-
Aghnya the one that ought not to be killed
Ahi the one that must not be slaughtered.
Aditi the one that ought not to be cut into pieces.

These three names of cow signify that the animal ought not to be put to tortures. These words appear frequently throughout the Vedas in context of the cow.

——————————————–

Aghnyeyam saa vardhataam mahate soubhagaaya

Rigveda 1.164.27
Cow – The aghnya – brings us health and prosperity

Suprapaanam Bhavatvaghnyaayaah
Rigveda 5.83.8
There should be excellent facility for pure water for Aghnya Cow

Yah paurusheyena kravishaa samankte yo ashwena pashunaa yaatudhaanah

Yo aghnyaayaa bharati ksheeramagne teshaam sheershaani harasaapi vrishcha
Rigveda 10.87.16

Those who feed on human, horse or animal flesh and those who destroy milk-giving Aghnya cows should be severely punished.

Vimucchyadhvamaghnyaa devayaanaa aganma
Yajurveda 12.73
The Aghnya cows and bulls bring you prosperity

Maa gaamanaagaamaditim vadhishta
Rigveda 8.101.15
Do not kill the cow. Cow is innocent and aditi – that ought not to be cut into pieces

Antakaaya goghaatam
Yajurveda 30.18
Destroy those who kill cows

Yadi no gaam hansi yadyashwam yadi poorusham
Tam tvaa seesena vidhyaamo yatha no so aveeraha
Atharvaveda 1.16.4

If someone destroys our cows, horses or people, kill him with a bullet of lead.

Vatsam jaatamivaaghnyaa
Atharvaveda 3.30.1
Love each other as the Aghnya – non-killable cow – loves its calf

Dhenu sadanam rayeenaam
Atharvaveda 11.1.34
Cow is fountainhead of all bounties

The entire 28th Sukta or Hymn of 6th Mandal of Rigveda sings the glory of cow.
Aa gaavo agnamannuta bhadramakrantseedantu

Bhooyobhooyo rayimidasya vardhayannabhinne

Na taa nashanti na dabhaati taskaro naasaamamitro vyathiraa dadharshati

Na taa arvaa renukakaato ashnute na samskritramupa yanti taa abhi

Gaavo bhago gaava indro me achhaan

Yooyam gaavo medayathaa

Maa vah stena eeshata maaghanshasah

1. Everyone should ensure that cows are free from miseries and kept healthy.
2. God blesses those who take care of cows.
3. Even the enemies should not use any weapon on cows
4. No one should slaughter the cow
5. Cow brings prosperity and strength

6. If cows keep healthy and happy, men and women shall also keep disease free and prosperous

7. May the cow eat green grass and pure water. May they not be killed and bring prosperity to us.

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What more proofs does one need to understand the high esteem in whichnot only the cow but each living being is held in the Vedas.

The learned audience can decide for themselves from these evidences that the Vedas are completely against any inhuman practice… to top it all the Beef and Cow slaughter.
There is no Beef in Vedas.

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Bibliography:

1. Rigveda Bhashya – Commentary on Rigveda by Swami Dayanand Saraswati

2. Yajurveda Bhashya – Commentary on Yajurveda by Swami Dayanand Saraswati
3. No Beef in Vedas by BD Ukhul

4. Vedon ka Yatharth Swaroop (True nature of Vedas) by Pt Dharmadeva Vidyavachaspati
5. All 4 Veda Samhita by Pt Damodar Satvalekar

6. Pracheen Bharat me Gomamsa – Ek Sameeksha (Beef in Ancient India – an analysis) by Geeta Press, Gorakhpur
7. The Myth of Holy Cow – by DN Jha
8. Hymns of Atharvaveda – Griffith
9. Scared Books of the east – Max Muller
10. Rigveda translations by Williams/Jones
11. Sanskrit English Dictionary – Monier Williams
12. Commentary on Vedas by Dayanand Sansthan
13. Western Indologists – a study of motives by Pt Bhagvadutt
14. Satyarth Prakash by Swami Dayanand Saraswati
15. Introduction to Vedas by Swami Dayanand Saraswati
16. Cloud over understanding of Vedas by BD Ukhul
17. Shathpath Brahman
18. Nirukta – Yaska Acharya
19. Dhatupath – Panini

Ref – Agniveer

Kindly check the below video for further clarification

Ganesh Chaturthi explained

Sri Sri explains the Symbolism of Ganesh Chaturthi:-

Ganesh Chaturthi is celebrated on the day on which Lord Ganesha is believed to bestow his presence on earth for all his devotees. Ganesha, the elephant-headed son of Shiva and Parvati, is worshipped as the supreme god of wisdom, prosperity and good fortune. Though it is celebrated as the birthday of Lord Ganesha, the symbolism behind the festival is much deeper.

The essence of Ganeshji is brought out beautifully by Adi Shankara. Though Ganeshji is worshiped as the the elephant-headed God, the form (swaroop) is just to bring out its parabrahma roopa. Ganeshji is described as Ajam Nirvikalpam Niraakaaramekam. This means that Ganeshji is never born.

He is Ajam (unborn), he is Niraakaar (formless) and he is Nirvikalpa (attributeless). Ganeshji symbolises the consciousness which is omnipresent. Ganeshji is the same energy which is the reason for this universe, from which everything is manifested and it’s the same energy in which the whole world will be dissolved. Ganeshji is not somewhere outside of us, but the very centre of our life. But this is very subtle knowledge. Not everybody can perceive the formless without the form. Our ancient Rishis and Munis knew this; so they created the form for the benefit and understanding of people at all levels. Those who can’t experience of the formless, over a period of sustained experience of manifested form reach the formless Brahman.

So in reality, Ganeshji is formless; yet there is a form to which Adi Shankara prayed and that form carries the message of the formlesness of Ganeshji. Thus, the form serves as the starting point and gradually the formless consciousness begins to manifest. Ganesh Chaturthi marks a unique art of reaching formless Paramatma called Lord Ganesh by repeated worship of the manifest form of Ganesha. Even the Ganesh Stotram, the prayers recited in the praise of Ganeshji, conveys the same. We pray to Ganeshji in our consciousness to come out and sit in the idol for us for a while so that we can play with him. And after the puja, we again pray asking him to go back to where he comes from; that’s our consciousness. While he is in the idol, we offer back whatever God has given us through the puja of the idol.

The ritual of immersing (visaran) the idols after few days of worship reinforces the understanding that God is not in the idol, it’s inside us. So experiencing the omnipresent in the form and deriving joy out of the form is the essence of the Ganesha Chaturthi festival. In a way such organised festivity and worships lead to an upsurge in enthusiasm and devotion.

Ganeshji is the lord of all the good qualities in us. So when we worship him, all the good qualities will blossom in us. He is also the lord of knowledge and wisdom. Knowledge dawns only when we become aware of the Self. When there is inertia, there is no knowledge, no wisdom, nor is there any liveliness (Chaitanya) or progress in life. So the consciousness has to be awakened and the presiding diety of consciousness is Ganeshji. That’s why before every puja, the Lord Ganesha is worshiped to awaken the consciousness.

Therefore, install the idol, worship it with infinite love, meditate and experience Lord Ganesha from within. This is the symbolic essence of Ganesh Chaturti festival, to awaken the Ganesha tatva which is masked inside us.

Ganpati Bappa Moriya
Mangal Murti Moriya

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Historical Krishna !!

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Krishna’s historicity

The people of this country never had any doubts about the historicity of Krishna until the colonial invaders projected Krishna as a mythical figure cooked up by wonderful stories.

Colonial Hangover

The story of Krishna is deeply embedded in the cultural fabric of India and the people of this land revere Him as a Divinity. The colonial hangover has however left a doubt on the historicity of this highly adored Divinity.

Archeo-Astronomy

The science of Archeo-Astronomy has enabled us to go beyond the boundaries of conventional archaeology in tracing the historicity of some well-known personages of this land, such as Rama, Krishna, Buddha, Mahavira and Shankara. Planetary configurations mentioned in the ancient scriptures pertaining to major events and personages connected, help us date events that happened around these personages, centuries and millennia ago, either manually or with more ease and accuracy, using Planetarium software.

Tracing Krishna’s Birth Date

As per the scriptures, Lord Krishna was born around midnight. That night was the eight phase of the moon known as Ashtami Tithi. The moon was near Vrshabha, the bull, i.e the Taurus constellation that houses the star Rohini. The star Rohini is known as Aldeberan in modern astronomy. The month was Shravana, one of the 12 months in the Indian calendar.

These details are clearly mentioned in the 10th Skanda, 3rd chapter of the Bhagavata Purana.

The relevant sloka is,

Shravana vada ashtami, Rohini Nakshtra, uditam Lagnam

This detail combined with details of sky configurations for events that happened around Krishna’s lifetimes, namely the Mahabharata, leads us to the exact birth date for Krishna.

Such a search leads us to 27th July, 3112 BCE as Krishna’s date of birth in the Gregorian Calendar.

Sri Jayanthi

In Indian tradition, Krishna’s birth is also called as “Sri Jayanthi”. The word “Jayanthi” has an interesting connotation in Indian Astronomy. Indian astronomers have accorded special names to lunar phases occurring at certain stars.

The lunar phase occurring at Punarvasu star in Gemini constellation is called Jaya.The lunar phase occurring at Pushya star in the Gemini constellation is called Nasini. The lunar phase seen at Shravana star in the Capricorn zodiac is called Vijaya. Similarly, the phase of the moon occurring at Rohini star is called Jayanthi.

Krishna’s birth which happened when the moon was at Rohini star is called Sri Jayanthi.

Jayanthi also means celebrations and the word has thus come to be used to indicate birthday celebrations. Thus, the word “Jayanthi, over time, has also come to be used for the birthday celebrations of other great personages and we today celebrate Buddha Jayanthi, Mahaveer Jayanthi, Shankara Jayanthi, ShivajiJayanthi, Gandhi Jayanthi, Ambedkar Jayanthi etc. “Jayanthi” became popular because of association with Krishna.

Every year, for millennia, Indians have been celebrating Krishna’s birthday in the Shravana month, on Rohini Nakshatra, Krishna Paksha Ashtami (8th phase of the waning moon) based on these details in scriptures.

It is the year of birth however, which has been the missing piece in common knowledge.

Not only from Archaeo-astronomy, but also from a wholistic analysis of data across various disciplines, today we can conclude that Lord Krishna was born in 3112 BCE.

5127th Birthday of Krishna

So, this year, 2015 CE, makes it the 5127th year since His birth, Sri Jayanthi. Let us celebrate this 5127th birthday of Lord Krishna, keeping in mind that India’s most beloved Divinity was indeed also a historical figure who had walked this planet about 5000 years ago.

While Divinity is a matter of faith, historicity is a matter of existence. With the unraveling of the dates for Krishna, what comes out for all to see is the beautiful blend of Divinity and Historicity in Krishna. One does not preclude the other.

BHARATH GYAN

Martial Arts

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Martial Arts
According to author Terence Dukes:
“Fighting without weapons was a specialty of the Ksatreya (caste of Ancient India)and foot soldier alike. For the Ksatreya it was simply part and parcel of their all around training, but for the lowly peasant it was essential. We read in the Vedas of men unable to afford armor who bound their heads with turbans called Usnisa to protect themselves from sword and axe blows.
Search for Kalari Martial Arts and Silambam Martial Arts.
Fighting on foot for a Ksatreya was necessary in case he was unseated from his chariot or horse and found himself without weapons.
Although the high ethical code of the Ksatreya forbid anyone but another Ksatreya from attacking him, doubtless such morals were not always observed, and when faced with an unscrupulous opponent, the Ksatreya needed to be able to defend himself, and developed, therefore, a very effective form of hand-to-hand combat that combined techniques of wrestling, throws, and hand strikes.
Tactics and evasion were formulated that were later passed on to successive generations. This skill was called Vajramukhti, a name meaning “thunderbolt closed – or clasped – hands.”
The tile Vajramukti referred to the usage of the hands in a manner as powerful as the Vajra maces of traditional warfare. Vajramukti was practiced in peacetime by means of regular physical training sessions and these utilized sequences of attack and defense technically termed in Sanskrit nata.”
“Prior to and during the life of the Buddha various principles were embodied within the warrior caste known as the Ksatreya (Japanese: Setsuri). This title – stemming from Sanskrit root Ksetr meaning “power,” described an elite force of usually royal or noble-born warriors who were trained from infancy in a wide variety of military and martial arts, both armed and unarmed.
In China, the Ksatreya were considered to have descended from the deity Ping Wang (Japanese: Byo O), the “Lord of those who keep things calm.” Ksatreyas were like the Peace force – to keep kings and people in order. Military commanders were called Senani – a name reminiscent of the Japanese term Sensei which describes a similar status. The Japanese samurai also had similar traits to the Ksatreya. Their battle practices and techniques are often so close to that of the Ksatreya that we must assume the former came from India perhaps via China. The traditions of sacred Swords, of honorable self-sacrifice, and service to one’s Lord are all found first in India.
“In ancient Hinduism, nata was acknowledged as a spiritual study and conferred as a ruling deity, Nataraja, representing the awakening of wisdom through physical and mental concentration. However, after the Muslim invasion of India and its brutal destruction of Buddhist and Hindu culture and religion, the Ksatreya art of nata was dispersed and many of its teachers slain. This indigenous martial arts, under the name of Kalari or Kalaripayit exists only in South India today. Originating at least 1,300 years ago, India’s Kalaripayit is the oldest martial art taught today. It is also the most potentially violent, because students advance from unarmed combat to the use of swords, sharpened flexible metal lashes, and peculiar three-bladed daggers.
When Buddhism came to influence India (circa 500 B.c), the Deity Nataraja was converted to become one of the four protectors of Buddhism, and was renamed Nar (y)ayana Deva (Chinese: Na Lo Yen Tien). He is said to be a protector of the Eastern Hemisphere of the mandala.”

(source: The Boddhisattva Warriors: The Origin, Inner Philosophy, History and Symbolism of the Buddhist Martial Art Within India and China p.3 – 158-174 and 242).

7 mysteries of Shiva

7 mysteries Revealed about Shiva :
🌺1~ Why Snake?
Snakes are a symbol of awareness.
You can’t be asleep with a snake around your neck!

🌼2 ~Why Ashes?
To remind you of the impermanence of life; knowing that we live life fully.

:)3 ~Is the Moon an Ornament?
The moon and the mind are deeply connected. To be happy in all phases of life, you have to have a say over the mind.

🌹4~ Why Damru?
It has the same shape as the symbol of infinity. Shiva is the unbound infinite consciousness!

🍁5~ Trishul – A Weapon?
Shiva rules over the three gunas (Satvik, Rajasik, Tamasik) represented in the trishul. Yet he encourages everyone to do their dharma – to act and stand up for truth.

🌈6 ~Blue Bodied
The sky is limitless and so is Shiva.
The sky is blue and Shiva is blue too.

🌝7 ~What about Ganga?
Ganga represents gyan (knowledge). Knowledge is infinite hence its controlled flow is required. Wisdom dawns naturally when you are established in the Shiva.

Happy Mahashivratri

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Bheeshma Nirvana

Bheeshma Nirvana

On which day did Bheeshma leave his mortal coil in the Gregorian calendar?
In the chapters dealing with the war, Bheeshma Parva, in verses 6.114.86-100, after being mortally wounded, we find Bheeshma saying that he would wait until Uttarayana to die.
Again in the same Parva, in 6.116.13, he repeats that he is waiting for the return of the sun and the moon to breathe his last. He calls the alignment as Sasi Surya Yoga. Sasi is another name for the moon and Surya means the Sun.
It is only in AnushasanaParva, the chapters after the war, in the Mahabharata, that we find Bheeshma mentioning the exact number of days as well as the particulars of the lunar month, day and phase.
The relevant verse reads as,
Parivrtto hi BhagavansahasransurDivakarah
Astapancasatamratryahsayanasyadya me gatah
Saresunisitagresuyathavarsasatamtatha.
Magho’yamsamanupraptomasahsaumyoyudhistira
Tribhagasesahpakso’yamsuklobhavitumarhati.
– Mahabharata 13.153.26-28
The translation reads as,
“The thousand-rayed maker of day, the radiant Surya has turned around on his northward course.
I have spent 58 sleepless nights.
But it feels as though it has been a century since I have lain stretched on these sharp arrows.
O Yudhishthira, the lunar month of Magha has come.
This is the lit fortnight and remainder three parts ought to be.”
Bheeshma thus states that,
• the Sun had turned around and Uttarayana, i.e northern
movement of the sun had commenced
• the lunar month of Maghahad arrived
• it was the bright fortnight – implying that it was Shukla
Paksha
The last part of the verse mentions “3 parts” but seems to be shrouded in ambiguity on whether 3 parts have gone by or whether 3 parts are yet to come by. Also 3 parts of what, is not very evident either. This has stirred up many a debate among scholars and one finds many interpretations of this line.
However, this ambiguity is sealed by a verse in the Shanti Parva, which reads,
Shukla pakshasyaashtamyam
Maghamasasyaparthiva
prajapatye cha nakshatre
madyampraptedivakare
Nivritamatretvayane
uttarevaidivkare
samaveswhayadatmanam
atmanyevsamahitah
– Mahabharata, Shanti Parva47 – 3
“In the ashtami of shuklapaksha of Magha month, in Rohininakshatra, when the sun was at zenith, around noon, when the sun had turned Uttara already, i.e. when the Sun had turned north, Uttarayana had begun, Bheeshma’s soul joined the Supreme Divine.”
i.e. Bheeshma breathed his last on the 8th phase in bright fortnight of Magha, i.e.on Magha Shukla Paksha Ashtami, now known as Bheeshma Ashtami.
The Mahabharata text describes the night of Bheeshma’s Nirvana further as mighty Saturn had stationed itself near Rohini star, i.e. Aldeberan in Taurus constellation.
These are very exact statements and have to fit in the sequence of dates arrived at, through any method of dating.
The Skychart
From the details about Bheeshma’s demise, Bheeshma Nirvana, searching the past for such a time window which not only meets above descriptions from the text, but also fits with the time frame of the other events, we find that the winter solstice, Uttarayana, had occurred in lunar month of Magha, on Shukla Paksha Sapthami, 7th phase, brighter half, on 17th January, 3066 BCE.
Bheeshma therefore breathed his last on the next day, Ashtami, 8th
phase of the moon, 18th January, 3066 BCE.

D.K.Hari & D.K.Hema Hari, Founders, Bharath Gyan

Reason why British left India in 1947

British - India
Writing in his much-acclaimed book Indian Struggle, Subhas Chandra Bose stated, “Mahatma Gandhi has rendered and will continue to render phenomenal service to his country.” “But”, he added, “India’s salvation will not be achieved under his leadership.”

Nearly 70 years after power was transferred to Indian hands, sufficient information has come on record to give a new thrust to the old question: “Who brought India freedom — Gandhi or Bose?”

The people who were best positioned to answer the question were those who had an inside knowledge of the situation as it prevailed in India from 1942 to 1947. In 1942, Gandhi launched the Quit India movement. The view from the Bose’s side was that it was his suggestion in 1939 to serve a 6-month’s ultimatum on the British Government, which was accepted by Gandhi in totality in his Quit India resolution of August 1942. Prior to this, Gandhi was, as Bose himself stated repeatedly, most reluctant to launch a movement. This is what he wrote in Indian Struggle.

“On 6 September(1939), Mahatma Gandhi, after meeting the Viceroy, Lord Linlithgow, issued a press statement saying that in spite of the differences between India and Britain on the question of Indian independence, India should cooperate with Britain in her hour of danger. This statement came as a bombshell to the Indian people, who since 1927 had been taught by the Congress leaders to regard the next war as a unique opportunity for winning freedom.”

Be that as it may, the Quit India movement was launched in good earnest. Bose praised Gandhi’s stirring speech as he launched it. But, unfortunately, the movement was “crushed within 3 weeks”. Thus spake Khushwant Singh, someone who was not a fan of Subhas Bose. Anyhow, having lived through those times, Singh further explained: “The British were not evicted from India; they found it increasingly difficult to rule it and decided to call it a day.”

So what happened between 1942 and 1947 that made the British take the call? Conventional wisdom can be explained by way of 1954 Bollywood hit “दे दी हमें आज़ादी बिना खडग बिना ढाल/साबरमती के संत तू ने कर दिया कमाल”, which extols Gandhi for having singlehandedly delivered freedom to India solely through the non-violent means. Celebrated historians and researchers with all their experience and exposure (which doesn’t come easily to those who go against the current) can put it better

There is a ground rule in journalism — and also in intelligence — that if 3 informed reliable sources independent of each other make similar statements, the sum of their statements has to as close to truth as one gets it.

So let’s try and connect some dots and see what story they tell.

As late as 1946, Gandhi stated, “We shall be able to win freedom only through the principles the Congress has adopted for the past 30 years.” Gandhi’s own three pet principles were “truth, ahimsa and brahmacharya”. The first 2 are well-espoused by Gandhians, who rather not speak about the third for it is a blot on the Gandhian legacy.

No one knew India’s internal situation better than the Director, Intelligence Bureau. One who thinks it’s the editor of some newspaper is superficial. Here’s what Sir Norman Smith, DIB, noted in a secret report of November 1945 that was declassified in the 1970s: “The situation in respect of the Indian National Army is one which warrants disquiet. There has seldom been a matter which has attracted so much Indian public interest and, it is safe to say, sympathy… the threat to the security of the Indian Army is one which it would be unwise to ignore.”

An agreement of sort came from Lt General SK Sinha, former Governor of Jammu & Kashmir and Assam, who was one of the only 3 Indian officers posted in the Directorate of Military Operations in New Delhi in 1946. “There was considerable sympathy for the INA within the Army… It is true that fears of another 1857 had begun to haunt the British in 1946.” Sinha wrote this in 1976.

Agreeing with this contention were a number of British MPs who met British Prime Minister Clement Attlee in February 1946. “There are two alternative ways of meeting this common desire (a) that we should arrange to get out, (b) that we should wait to be driven out. In regard to (b), the loyalty of the Indian Army is open to question; the INA have become national heroes….” This minute too was declassified in the 1970s.

A most valuable light on the role of the INA was thrown by Bhimrao Ambedkar in February 1956, a few months before he passed away, in a tell-all interview to the BBC. “I don’t know how Mr Attlee suddenly agreed to give India independence… It seems to me from my own analysis that two things led the Labour party to take this decision: 1. The national army that was raised by Subhas Chandra Bose. The British had been ruling the country in the firm belief that whatever may happen in the country or whatever the politicians do, they will never be able to change the loyalty of soldiers. That was one prop on which they were carrying on the administration. And that was completely dashed to pieces.”

The clincher of an argument came from Earl Attlee himself as he visited India in October 1956. Some 2 decades later, PB Chakravarty, Chief Justice of Calcutta High Court and acting Governor of West Bengal in 1956, recalled his talks with the former British PM in the following words: “Toward the end of our discussion I asked Attlee what was the extent of Gandhi’s influence upon the British decision to quit India. Hearing this question, Attlee’s lips became twisted in a sarcastic smile as he slowly chewed out the word, ‘m-i-n-i-m-a-l!”

British historian Michael Edwardes fairly summed this up in his 1964 book, The Last Years of British India. “It slowly dawned upon the Government of India that the backbone of the British rule, the Indian Army, might now no longer be trustworthy. The ghost of Subhas Bose, like Hamlet’s father, walked the battlements of the Red Fort (where the INA soldiers were being tried), and his suddenly amplified figure overawed the conference that was to lead to Independence.”

It is a wide known fact that Bose met Hitler during WW-2 & had the german support against the Brits. He also met many Indian POWs in German ccamps & motivated them to fight for independance against the Imperialist British.

The crucial point to note is that thanks to Subhas Chandra Bose’s activities, the Indian Armed Forces began to see themselves as defenders of India rather than of the British Empire. This, more than anything else, was what led to India’s freedom. This is also the reason why the British Empire disappeared from the face of the earth within an astonishingly short space of twenty years. Indian soldiers, who were the main prop of the Empire, were no longer willing to fight for the British. What influenced the British decision was mutiny of the Indian Navy following the INA trials in 1946. While the British wanted to try Subhas Chandra Bose’s INA as traitors, Indian soldiers saw them as nationalists and patriots. This scared the British. They decided to get out in a hurry.

(Attlee repeated his argument on at least two other occasions, including once in the House of Commons. During a debate in the House of Commons, he told Churchill that he would agree to the latter’s suggestion of holding on to India if he could guarantee the loyalty of the Indian armed forces. Churchill had no reply. The Labour Prime Minister was as much an imperialist as Churchill, but more pragmatic, prepared to see the writing on the wall.)

This will come as a shock to most Indians brought up to believe that the Congress movement driven by the ‘spiritual force’ of Mahatma Gandhi forced the British to leave India. But both evidence and the logic of history are against this beautiful but childish fantasy. It was the fear of mutiny by the Indian armed forces – and not any ‘spiritual force’ – that forced the issue of freedom. The British saw that the sooner they left the better for themselves, for, at the end of the war, India had some three million men under arms. One would have to be extraordinarily dense – which the British were not – to fail to see the writing on the wall.

So, as the great historian R.C. Majumdar wrote, Subhas Bose with his INA campaigns probably contributed more to Indian independence than Gandhi, Nehru and their movements. The result of Subhas Chandra Bose’s activities was the rise of the nationalist spirit in the Indian Armed Forces. This is the reason why Nehru, after he became Prime Minister, did everything possible to turn Bose into a non-person. He wanted no rivals.

As Jawaharlal Nehru delivered his famous “Tryst with destiny” speech, not a word in it was devoted to Bose or his INA, but without whom the transfer of power wouldn’t have taken place in 1947.

Also check the video

The history of Christmas

The History of Christmas

I. When was Jesus born?

A. Popular myth puts his birth on December 25th in the year 1 C.E.

B. The New Testament gives no date or year for Jesus’ birth. The earliest gospel – St. Mark’s, written about 65 CE – begins with the baptism of an adult Jesus. This suggests that the earliest Christians lacked interest in or knowledge of Jesus’ birthdate.

C. The year of Jesus birth was determined by Dionysius Exiguus, a Scythian monk, “abbot of a Roman monastery. His calculation went as follows:

a. In the Roman, pre-Christian era, years were counted from ab urbe condita (“the founding of the City” [Rome]). Thus 1 AUC signifies the year Rome was founded, 5 AUC signifies the 5th year of Rome’s reign, etc.

b. Dionysius received a tradition that the Roman emperor Augustus reigned 43 years, and was followed by the emperor Tiberius.

c. Luke 3:1,23 indicates that when Jesus turned 30 years old, it was the 15th year of Tiberius reign.

d. If Jesus was 30 years old in Tiberius’ reign, then he lived 15 years under Augustus (placing Jesus birth in Augustus’ 28th year of reign).

e. Augustus took power in 727 AUC. Therefore, Dionysius put Jesus birth in 754 AUC.

f. However, Luke 1:5 places Jesus’ birth in the days of Herod, and Herod died in 750 AUC – four years before the year in which Dionysius places Jesus birth.

D. Joseph A. Fitzmyer – Professor Emeritus of Biblical Studies at the Catholic University of America, member of the Pontifical Biblical Commission, and former president of the Catholic Biblical Association – writing in the Catholic Church’s official commentary on the New Testament[1], writes about the date of Jesus’ birth, “Though the year [of Jesus birth is not reckoned with certainty, the birth did not occur in AD 1. The Christian era, supposed to have its starting point in the year of Jesus birth, is based on a miscalculation introduced ca. 533 by Dionysius Exiguus.”

E. The DePascha Computus, an anonymous document believed to have been written in North Africa around 243 CE, placed Jesus birth on March 28. Clement, a bishop of Alexandria (d. ca. 215 CE), thought Jesus was born on November 18. Based on historical records, Fitzmyer guesses that Jesus birth occurred on September 11, 3 BCE.

F. Luke 2:8 explains that when Christ was born, “there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night.” Note that they were “abiding” in the field. This never happened in December. Both Ezra 10:9-13 and the Song of Solomon 2:11 show that winter was the rainy season and shepherds could not stay on cold, open fields at night.

II. How Did Christmas Come to Be Celebrated on December 25?

A. Roman pagans first introduced the holiday of Saturnalia, a week long period of lawlessness celebrated between December 17-25. During this period, Roman courts were closed, and Roman law dictated that no one could be punished for damaging property or injuring people during the weeklong celebration. The festival began when Roman authorities chose “an enemy of the Roman people” to represent the “Lord of Misrule.” Each Roman community selected a victim whom they forced to indulge in food and other physical pleasures throughout the week. At the festival’s conclusion, December 25th, Roman authorities believed they were destroying the forces of darkness by brutally murdering this innocent man or woman.

B. The ancient Greek writer poet and historian Lucian (in his dialogue entitled Saturnalia) describes the festival’s observance in his time. In addition to human sacrifice, he mentions these customs: widespread intoxication; going from house to house while singing naked; rape and other sexual license; and consuming human-shaped biscuits (still produced in some English and most German bakeries during the Christmas season).

C. In the 4th century CE, Christianity imported the Saturnalia festival hoping to take the pagan masses in with it. Christian leaders succeeded in converting to Christianity large numbers of pagans by promising them that they could continue to celebrate the Saturnalia as Christians.[2]

D. The problem was that there was nothing intrinsically Christian about Saturnalia. To remedy this, these Christian leaders named Saturnalia’s concluding day, December 25th, to be Jesus’ birthday.

E. Christians had little success, however, refining the practices of Saturnalia. As Stephen Nissenbaum, professor history at the University of Massachussetts, Amherst, writes, “In return for ensuring massive observance of the anniversary of the Savior’s birth by assigning it to this resonant date, the Church for its part tacitly agreed to allow the holiday to be celebrated more or less the way it had always been.” The earliest Christmas holidays were celebrated by drinking, sexual indulgence, singing naked in the streets (a precursor of modern caroling), etc.

F. The Reverend Increase Mather of Boston observed in 1687 that “the early Christians who first observed the Nativity on December 25 did not do so thinking that Christ was born in that Month, but because the Heathens’ Saturnalia was at that time kept in Rome, and they were willing to have those Pagan Holidays metamorphosed into Christian ones.”[3] Because of its known pagan origin, Christmas was banned by the Puritans and its observance was illegal in Massachusetts between 1659 and 1681.[4] However, Christmas was and still is celebrated by most Christians.

G. Some of the most depraved customs of the Saturnalia carnival were intentionally revived by the Catholic Church in 1466 when Pope Paul II, for the amusement of his Roman citizens, forced Jews to race naked through the streets of the city. An eyewitness account reports, “Before they were to run, the Jews were richly fed, so as to make the race more difficult for them and at the same time more amusing for spectators. They ran… amid Rome’s taunting shrieks and peals of laughter, while the Holy Father stood upon a richly ornamented balcony and laughed heartily.”[5]

H. As part of the Saturnalia carnival throughout the 18th and 19th centuries CE, rabbis of the ghetto in Rome were forced to wear clownish outfits and march through the city streets to the jeers of the crowd, pelted by a variety of missiles. When the Jewish community of Rome sent a petition in1836 to Pope Gregory XVI begging him to stop the annual Saturnalia abuse of the Jewish community, he responded, “It is not opportune to make any innovation.”[6] On December 25, 1881, Christian leaders whipped the Polish masses into Antisemitic frenzies that led to riots across the country. In Warsaw 12 Jews were brutally murdered, huge numbers maimed, and many Jewish women were raped. Two million rubles worth of property was destroyed.

III. The Origins of Christmas Customs

A. The Origin of Christmas Tree
Just as early Christians recruited Roman pagans by associating Christmas with the Saturnalia, so too worshippers of the Asheira cult and its offshoots were recruited by the Church sanctioning “Christmas Trees”.[7] Pagans had long worshipped trees in the forest, or brought them into their homes and decorated them, and this observance was adopted and painted with a Christian veneer by the Church.

B. The Origin of Mistletoe
Norse mythology recounts how the god Balder was killed using a mistletoe arrow by his rival god Hoder while fighting for the female Nanna. Druid rituals use mistletoe to poison their human sacrificial victim.[8] The Christian custom of “kissing under the mistletoe” is a later synthesis of the sexual license of Saturnalia with the Druidic sacrificial cult.[9]

C. The Origin of Christmas Presents
In pre-Christian Rome, the emperors compelled their most despised citizens to bring offerings and gifts during the Saturnalia (in December) and Kalends (in January). Later, this ritual expanded to include gift-giving among the general populace. The Catholic Church gave this custom a Christian flavor by re-rooting it in the supposed gift-giving of Saint Nicholas (see below).[10]

D. The Origin of Santa Claus

a. Nicholas was born in Parara, Turkey in 270 CE and later became Bishop of Myra. He died in 345 CE on December 6th. He was only named a saint in the 19th century.

b. Nicholas was among the most senior bishops who convened the Council of Nicaea in 325 CE and created the New Testament. The text they produced portrayed Jews as “the children of the devil”[11] who sentenced Jesus to death.

c. In 1087, a group of sailors who idolized Nicholas moved his bones from Turkey to a sanctuary in Bari, Italy. There Nicholas supplanted a female boon-giving deity called The Grandmother, or Pasqua Epiphania, who used to fill the children’s stockings with her gifts. The Grandmother was ousted from her shrine at Bari, which became the center of the Nicholas cult. Members of this group gave each other gifts during a pageant they conducted annually on the anniversary of Nicholas’ death, December 6.

d. The Nicholas cult spread north until it was adopted by German and Celtic pagans. These groups worshipped a pantheon led by Woden –their chief god and the father of Thor, Balder, and Tiw. Woden had a long, white beard and rode a horse through the heavens one evening each Autumn. When Nicholas merged with Woden, he shed his Mediterranean appearance, grew a beard, mounted a flying horse, rescheduled his flight for December, and donned heavy winter clothing.

e. In a bid for pagan adherents in Northern Europe, the Catholic Church adopted the Nicholas cult and taught that he did (and they should) distribute gifts on December 25th instead of December 6th.

f. In 1809, the novelist Washington Irving (most famous his The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle) wrote a satire of Dutch culture entitled Knickerbocker History. The satire refers several times to the white bearded, flying-horse riding Saint Nicholas using his Dutch name, Santa Claus.

g. Dr. Clement Moore, a professor at Union Seminary, read Knickerbocker History, and in 1822 he published a poem based on the character Santa Claus: “Twas the night before Christmas, when all through the house, not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse. The stockings were hung by the chimney with care, in the hope that Saint Nicholas soon would be there…” Moore innovated by portraying a Santa with eight reindeer who descended through chimneys.

h. The Bavarian illustrator Thomas Nast almost completed the modern picture of Santa Claus. From 1862 through 1886, based on Moore’s poem, Nast drew more than 2,200 cartoon images of Santa for Harper’s Weekly. Before Nast, Saint Nicholas had been pictured as everything from a stern looking bishop to a gnome-like figure in a frock. Nast also gave Santa a home at the North Pole, his workshop filled with elves, and his list of the good and bad children of the world. All Santa was missing was his red outfit.

i. In 1931, the Coca Cola Corporation contracted the Swedish commercial artist Haddon Sundblom to create a coke-drinking Santa. Sundblom modeled his Santa on his friend Lou Prentice, chosen for his cheerful, chubby face. The corporation insisted that Santa’s fur-trimmed suit be bright, Coca Cola red. And Santa was born – a blend of Christian crusader, pagan god, and commercial idol.

IV. The Christmas Challenge

· Christmas has always been a holiday celebrated carelessly. For millennia, pagans, Christians, and even Jews have been swept away in the season’s festivities, and very few people ever pause to consider the celebration’s intrinsic meaning, history, or origins.

· Christmas celebrates the birth of the Christian god who came to rescue mankind from the “curse of the Torah.” It is a 24-hour declaration that Judaism is no longer valid.

· Christmas is a lie. There is no Christian church with a tradition that Jesus was really born on December 25th.

· December 25 is a day on which Jews have been shamed, tortured, and murdered.

· Many of the most popular Christmas customs – including Christmas trees, mistletoe, Christmas presents, and Santa Claus – are modern incarnations of the most depraved pagan rituals ever practiced on earth.

Many who are excitedly preparing for their Christmas celebrations would prefer not knowing about the holiday’s real significance. If they do know the history, they often object that their celebration has nothing to do with the holiday’s monstrous history and meaning. “We are just having fun.”

LAWRENCE KELEMEN

Alternate sources – The Speaking tree

LIFE after DEATH

What happens after death?
Sri Sri Ravi Shankar: What happens after death is the mind gets freed from the body, the spirit. The mind has memory and intelligence, so these two things become like a balloon. The karma, the deepest impressions form a balloon. It is like in sleep.

Death is nothing but a long sleep. Before going to sleep, see the last thought that you get, and as soon as you wake up, see what is the first thought that comes. Have you noticed? It will variably be the same though.

So the physical body decays and the pranic body with all the impressions forms a balloon and leaves the body and hangs around.

Don’t imagine a balloon hanging around! It is a light; an energy.

I will give you the best example. In a television station, they conduct a program and then they transmit it through the dish and the program remains in the atmosphere – it is the same way.

When you send an email from the computer, you type all the letters and then you press the send button. What happens? It goes into the space. Does your email remain in the space till it is downloaded? Even after several days you can download your email. Even one year later or ten years later you can download an email. There is no expiry date, isn’t that so. It is not like those greeting cards which sometimes people send you that expire in 24 hours.

The messages or letters you send don’t hang as letters in the space, it remains in the space as energy.

Like that every soul is a particular frequency and every thumb is different because a thumb is like a particular cell phone chip.

So after death, every individual energy stays, and the impressions it has taken, accordingly to that it experiences those stages there. But then after sometime that soul comes back.

The soul enters the body at three times – this is all a secret. It is called the birth secret and death secret.

So the soul enters at the moment of conception, or it enters in the fifth month, or at the time of birth. So the three sections are there, but there is no way to determine when it enters.

So if at conception time it comes then what one should do to care for that?

Keep yourself happy. Usually pregnant women are kept very happy in India. Whatever she wants is provided to her.

I would say, don’t watch all these violent movies, and scary songs, and scary things. Generally light flute music would be good because it is soothing. It is good to listen to music, knowledge and wisdom. All these things would be preferable.

The soul also chooses where to be born, the place to come. According to its wish it will just come there.

Tipu Sultan a COMMUNAL Fanatic !!!

TIPU SULTAN UNMASKED

Tipu Sultan had, ruled his kingdom only for sixteen-and-a-half years, from December 7, 1782 to May 4, 1799. The territory of Malabar was under his effective control only for a short period of eight years. If he had not secured the assistance of the wily Purnaiyya, there would not have been so many Muhammadans in the states of Kerala and Karnataka. Hindus also would not have become less prosperous, and fewer in number.

When that Brahmin Prime Minister, Purnaiyya, presented to Tipu Sultan 90,000 soldiers, three crore rupees, and invaluable ornaments made of precious stones, he was tempted to rule as the Emperor of the South India. Tipu did not consider the Hindu rulers of Maharashtra, Coorg and Travancore or the Muslim ruler Nizam as impediments. He was afraid of only the British. He had convinced himself that he could easily become the Emperor of South India if he could somehow vanquish the British. Because of his intense anti-British attitude, the so-called progressive and secular historians have made a vain attempt to paint Tipu Sultan as a great national hero.

Opposition to foreign powers need not always be due to love for one’s country. To achieve his selfish goal and to face the British forces, Tipu Sultan sought the assistance of another foreign power, the French, who were manoeuvring to establish their own domination in the country. How is it possible, therefore, for Tipu Sultan to be an enemy of foreign forces when he himself had sought help from Napoleon who was then a prisoner in St. Helena Island and also the French King, Louis XVI?

Besides, he also wanted to establish Islamic rule in the country; to achieve that he had to first defeat the British. For this purpose, Tipu Sultan solicited the assistance of Muslim countries like Persia, Afghanistan and Turkey. It is true that Tipu did not harm the Raja of Cochin or anyone for that matter who surrendered and pledged loyalty to him. But how does that make him a friend of Hindus?

Tipu and the Nizam were the only Muslim rulers in the Deccan at that time and hence he wanted to avoid any dispute with the Nizam. He insisted that the Nizam should agree to give his daughter in marriage to his son. But the Nizam, considering Tipu as an upstart with no aristocratic heredity, refused the offer. (According to Bhagwan Gidwani, Hyder Ali Khan had suggested earlier to the Nizam that he should agree to the marriage of his daughter to the young Tipu, then in his teens.) As if to spite the Nizam, Tipu Sultan got another of his sons married to the daughter of Arackal Bibi of Cannanore mainly to secure the loyalty of Malabar Muslims for subjugating the entire Malabar region. The result was for everybody to see in due course. It may be noted that the family of Arackal Bibi, though converted to Islam, followed the matriarchal system a system which the Muslim fanatic, Tipu, wanted to reform.

HE WANTED TO BE A PADISHAH

He wanted to become an Emperor after defeating the British. He wanted to achieve his ambition after consulting the astrologers. There were a few Brahmin astrologers in Sree Ranganatha Swami Temple. They predicted that if some of the suggested remedial rituals were performed, Tipu would achieve his cherished ambition. Believing that he could become the undisputed ruler of the whole of South India, after defeating the British, he performed all the suggested rituals in the Sree Ranaganatha Swami Temple, besides giving costly presents to the astrologers. This act is being widely interpreted by secularist historians as love and respect for Hindu religion and traditions! They also doubt if there were any Hindu temples which were desecrated or destroyed by Tipu Sultan and his Islamic army in Malabar.

The reputed historian, Lewis Rice, who wrote the History of Mysore after going through various official records, stated as follows: “In the vast empire of Tipu Sultan on the eve of his death, there were only two Hindu temples having daily pujas within the Sreerangapatanam fortress. It is only for the satisfaction of the Brahmin astrologers who used to study his horoscope that Tipu Sultan had spared those two temples. The entire wealth of every Hindu temple was confiscated before 1790 itself mainly to make up for the revenue loss due to total prohibition in the country.”

There are people who proclaim to the world that Tipu Sultan’s rule was fair and progressive in his own state of Mysore. It would be appropriate to have a look at what a Mysorean, M.A. Gopal Rao, stated a few years ago in one of his articles: ‘In a deliberately designed taxation scheme, the religious prejudice of Tipu Sultan became quite clear. His co-religionists, Muslims, were exempted from house tax, commodity tax and also the levy on other items of household use. Those who were converted to Muhammadanism, were also given similar tax exemptions. He had even made provisions for the education of their children. Tipu Sultan discontinued the practice of appointing Hindus in different administrative and military jobs as practised by his father, Hyder Ali Khan, in the past. He had deep hatred towards all non-Muslims. During the entire period of sixteen years of his regime, Purnaiyya was the only Hindu who had adorned the post of Dewan or minister under Tipu Sultan. In 1797 (two years before his death) among the 65 senior Government posts, not even a single Hindu was retained. All the Mustadirs were also Muslims. Among the 26 civil and military officers captured by the British in 1792 there were only 6 non-Muslims. In 1789, when the Nizam of Hyderabad and other Muslim rulers decided that only Muslims would be appointed henceforth in all Government posts, Tipu Sultan also adopted the same policy in his Mysore State. Just because they were Muslims, even those who were illiterate and inefficient, were also appointed to important Government posts. Even for getting promotions, one still had to be a Muslim under Tipu Sultan’s regime. Considering the interest and convenience of only Muslim officers, all the records relating to tax revenue, were ordered to be written in Persian rather than in Marathi and Kannada as followed earlier. He even tried to make Persian the State language in place of Kannada. In the end all the Government posts were filled by lazy and irresponsible Muslims. As a consequence the people had to suffer a great deal because of those fun-seeking and irresponsible Muslim officers. The Muslim officers, occupying important posts at all levels, were all dishonest and unreliable persons. Even when people complained to him with evidences against those officers, Tipu Sultan did not care to inquire about the complaints lodged.”

EVEN THE PLACE-NAMES WERE CHANGED

Gopal Rao had written all these on the basis of the writings of Tipu’s own son, Ghulam Muhammad, and Muslim historians like Kirmani. Even the Hindu names of places, the Sultan could not tolerate. Therefore, Mangalapuri (Mangalore) was changed to Jalalabad, Cannanore (Kanwapuram) to Kusanabad, Bepur (Vaippura) to Sultanpatanam or Faruqui, Mysore to Nazarabad, Dharwar to Quarshed-Sawad, Gooty to Faiz-Hissar, Ratnagiri to Mustafabad, Dindigul to Khaliqabad, and Calicut (Kozhikode) to Islamabad. It was after the death of Tipu Sultan that the local people reverted to old names.

ISLAMIC ATROCITIES IN COORG, BEDNUR, AND MANGALORE

The cruelties which Tipu Sultan committed in Coorg, has no parallel in history. On one occasion, he forcibly converted over ten thousand Hindus to Muhammadanism. On another occasion, he captured and converted to Islam more than one thousand Hindu Coorgis before imprisoning them in the Sreerangapatanam fortress. In the period of confusion and anarchy prevailing in Sreerangapatanam during the last war of Tipu Sultan against the British, all the Coorgi prisoners escaped from the prison and became Hindus again after reaching their native kingdom. Against the solemn oath given to the Raja of Coorg, Tipu Sultan forcibly abducted a young princess from the Coorg royal family and made her his wife against her will.

The atrocities committed by Tipu Sultan in Bidnur in North Karnataka during and after its capture by him, were most barbarous and beyond description. Ayaz Khan who was Kammaran Nambiar from Chirackal Kingdom before his forcible conversion to Islam by Hyder Ali Khan, had been appointed as Governor of Bidnur. Tipu Sultan was jealous of and opposed to Ayaz Khan from the very beginning because Hyder Ali Khan had considered the latter more intelligent and smart. When Ayaz Khan learnt that Tipu Sultan was scheming to kill him secretly, he escaped to Bombay with plenty of gold. Tipu Sultan came to Bednur and forcibly converted its entire population to Islam. The people accepted Islam for the sake of their lives.

After the capture of Mangalore, thousands of Christians were also forcibly sent to Sreerangapatanam where all of them were circumcised and converted to Islam. Tipu Sultan’s justification was that during the Portuguese domination, prior to the arrival of the British, many Muslims had been converted to Christianity by their Missionaries. He proudly proclaimed his action as a sort of punishment for the conversion of many Muslims by the Portuguese.

Then he marched upto Kumbla on the northern borders of Kerala, forcibly converting to Islam every Hindu on the way. This time, his argument (repeated by the Muslim and secularist historians of today) was that if all belonged to one religion – Muhammadanism – there would be unity and consequently it would be easy to defeat the British!

INSIDE MALABAR

In Malabar, the main target of Tipu Sultan’s atrocities were Hindus and Hindu temples. According to Lewis B. Boury, the atrocities committed by Tipu Sultan against Hindus in Malabar were worse and more barbarous than those committed against the Hindus in Hindustan by the notorious Mahmud of Ghazni, Alauddin Khalji, and Nadir Shah. He disputes in his book Mukherjee’s version that Tipu Sultan had converted only his opponents. Normally even a cruel person kills or tortures only his enemies. But that argument does not justify the cruelties committed by him against innocent women and children.

DANCE OF THE ISLAMIC SATAN

According to the Malabar Manual of William Logan who was the District Collector for some time, Thrichambaram and Thalipparampu temples in Chirackal Taluqa, Thiruvangatu Temple (Brass Pagoda) in Tellicherry, and Ponmeri Temple near Badakara were all destroyed by Tipu Sultan. The Malabar Manual mention that the Maniyoor mosque was once a Hindu temple. The local belief is that it was converted to a mosque during the days of Tipu Sultan.

Vatakkankoor Raja Raja Varma in his famous literary work, History of Sanskrit Literature in Kerala, has written the following about the loss and destruction faced by the Hindu temples in Kerala during the military regime (Padayottam) of Tipu Sultan: “There was no limit as to the loss the Hindu temples suffered due to the military operations of Tipu Sultan. Burning down the temples, destruction of the idols installed therein and also cutting the heads of cattle over the temple deities were the cruel entertainments of Tipu Sultan and his equally cruel army. It was heartrending even to imagine the destruction caused by Tipu Sultan in the famous ancient temples of Thalipparampu and Thrichambaram. The devastation caused by this new Ravana’s barbarous activities have not yet been fully rectified.”

KOZHIKODE MADE A GRAVEYARD

As per the provisions of the Treaty of Mangalore of 1784, the British had allowed Tipu Sultan to have his suzerainty over Malabar. ‘In consequence, the Hindus of Malabar had to suffer the most severe enormities the world had ever known in history,’ observes K.V. Krishna Iyer, in his famous book, Zamorins of Calicut, based on historical records available from the royal house of Zamorins in Calicut. “When the second-in-line of Zamorins, Eralppad, refused to cooperate with Tipu Sultan in his military operations against Travancore because of Tipu’s crude methods of forcible circumcision and conversion of Hindus to Islam, the enraged Tipu Sultan took a solemn oath to circumcise and convert the Zamorin and his chieftains and Hindu soldiers to Islamic faith,” he adds.

L.B. Boury writes: “To show his ardent devotion and steadfast faith in Muhammaddan religion, Tipu Sultan found Kozhikode to be the most suitable place. It was because the Hindus of Malabar refused to reject the matriarchal system, polyandry and half-nakedness of women that the ‘great reformer’ Tipu Sultan tried to honour the entire population with Islam.” To the Malabar people, the Muslim harem, Muslim polygamy and the Islamic ritual of circumcision were equally repulsive and opposed to the ancient culture and tradition in Kerala. Tipu Sultan sought a marriage alliance with the matriarchal Muslim family of Arackal Bibi in Cannanore. Kozhikode was then a centre of Brahmins and had over 7000 Brahmin families living there. Over 2000 Brahmin families perished as a result of Tipu Sultan’s Islamic cruelties. He did not spare even women and children. Most of the men escaped to forests and foreign lands.

Elamkulam Kunjan Pillai wrote in the Mathrubhoomi Weekly of December 25, 1955: “Muhammadans greatly increased in number. Hindus were forcibly circumcised in thousands. As a result of Tipu’s atrocities, strength of Nairs and Chamars (Scheduled Castes) significantly diminished in number. Namboodiris also substantially decreased in number.”

The German missionary Guntest has recorded: ‘Accompanied by an army of 60,000, Tipu Sultan came to Kozhikode in 1788 and razed it to the ground. It is not possible even to describe the brutalities committed by that Islamic barbarian from Mysore.” C.A. Parkhurst also noted that ‘Almost the entire Kozhikode was razed to the ground.”

TEMPLES DESTROYED

Thali, Thiruvannur, Varackal, Puthur, Govindapuram, Thalikkunnu and other important temples in the town of Kozhikode as well as those nearby were completely destroyed as a result of Tipu’s military operations. Some of them were reconstructed by the Zamorin after he returned following the defeat of Tipu Sultan in Sreerangapatanam and the Treaty of 1792.

The devastation caused by Tipu Sultan to the ancient and holy temples of Keraladheeswaram, Thrikkandiyoor and Thriprangatu in Vettum region was terrible. The Zamorin renovated these temples to some extent. The famous and ancient Thirunavaya Temple, known throughout the country as an ancient teaching-centre of the Vedas, revered by the devotees of Vishnu from Tamil Nadu, and existing before the advent of Christ, was also plundered and destroyed by Tipu’s army (Malabar Gazetteer). After dismantling and destroying the idol, Tipu converted the Thrikkavu Temple into an ammunition depot in Ponnani (Malabar Manual). It was the Zamorin who repaired the temple later. Kotikkunnu, Thrithala, Panniyoor and other family temples of the Zamorin were plundered and destroyed. The famous Sukapuram Temple was also desecrated. Damage done to the Perumparampu Temple and Maranelira Temple of Azhvancherry Thamprakkal (titular head of all Namboodiri Brahmins) in Edappadu, can be seen even today. Vengari Temple and Thrikkulam Temple in Eranadu, Azhinjillam Temple in Ramanattukara, Indyannur Temple, Mannur Temple and many other temples were defiled and damaged extensively during the military regime.

Tipu Sultan reached Guruvayoor Temple only after destroying Mammiyoor Temple and Palayur Christian Church. If the destruction caused by Tipu’s army is not visible today in the Guruvayoor Temple, it is mainly because of the intervention of Hydrose Kutty who had been converted to Islam by Hyder Ali Khan. He secured the safety of the temple and the continuation of land-tax exemption allowed by Hyder Ali earlier, besides the renovation and repairs done by the devotees later. According to available evidences, fearing the wrath of Tipu Sultan, the sacred idol of the Guruvayoor Temple was removed to the Ambalapuzha Sri Krishna Temple in Travancore State. It was only after the end of Tipu’s military regime, that the idol was ceremoniously reinstated in the Guruvayoor Temple itself. Even today, daily pujas are conducted in Ambalapuzha Sri Krishna Temple where the idol of Guruvayoor Temple was temporarily installed and worshipped.

Damages caused to the nearby temples at Parampathali, Panmayanadu and Vengidangu are visible even today. The deplorable state of the architecture of the sanctum sanctorum of Parampathali Temple destroyed during the military operations of Tipu Sultan is really heart-rending. The atrocities committed in Kozhikode during the nightmarish days of the military occupation are vividly described in the works of Fra Bartolomaeo who had travelled through Kerala at that time. How cruelly Tipu Sultan, ably assisted by the French Commander M. Lally, had treated the Hindu and Christian population can be clearly understood from his writings.

TALKING RECORDS OF KERALA HISTORY

Govinda Pillai says in his famous book, History of Literature; “During Malayalam Era 965 corresponding to 1789-90, Tipu Sultan crossed over to Malabar with an army of uncivilised barbarians. With a sort of fanatical love for Islamic faith, he destroyed many Hindu temples and Christian churches which were the custodians of precious wealth and religious traditions. Besides, Tipu Sultan abducted hundreds of people and forcibly circumcised and converted them to Islam – an act which was considered by them as more than death.”

A small army of 2000 Nairs of Kadathanadu resisted the invasion of the huge army of Tipu Sultan from a fortress in Kuttipuram for a few weeks. They were reduced to starvation and death. Tipu Sultan entered the fort and offered to spare their lives, provided they accepted conversion to Islam. The unfortunate lot of 2000 Nairs were then forced to eat beef after being converted to Islamic faith, at the end of usual religious ritual of mass circumcision. All the members of one branch of Parappanad Royal Family were forcibly converted to Muhammadan faith except for one or two who escaped from the clutches of Tipu Sultan’s army. Similarly, one Thiruppad belonging to Nilamboor Royal Family was also forcibly abducted and converted to Islam. Thereafter, it was reported that further conversions of Hindus were attempted through those converts. In the end, when the Kolathiri Raja surrendered and paid tribute, Tipu Sultan got him treacherously killed without any specific reason, dragged his dead body tied to the feet of an elephant through the streets, and finally hanged him from a tree-top to show his Islamic contempt for Hindu Rajas.

It may be mentioned here that the entire Wodayar Royal Family of Mysore had been humiliated and kept in prison by Hyder Ali Khan and Tipu Sultan in their capital city, Sreerangapatanam. Even the Palghat Raja, Ettipangi Achan who had surrendered, was imprisoned on suspicion and later taken to Sreerangapatanam. Nothing was heard of him subsequently. Christians in Palghat fled out of fear. Tipu Sultan terrified the entire Hindu population in Malabar, stationing his army contingents in different regions for the purpose. The tax initially imposed by Hyder Ali Khan was forcibly collected by Tipu Sultan. Standing crops were confiscated. This act provoked even some influential Mappila landlords to revolt against Tipu Sultan.

Hyder Ali Khan had exempted temples from the payment of land tax. But Tipu Sultan forced the temples to pay heavy taxes. The famous Hemambika Temple at Kalpathi of the Palghat Raja who had surrendered to Hyder Ali Khan, the Kachamkurissi Temple of the Kollamkottu Raja who had deserted the Zamorin and sided with Hyder Ali Khan, and also the Jain Temple at Palghat suffered serious damages due to the cruel policies of Tipu Sultan.

Many Nair and Brahmin landlords fled the country leaving their vast wealth behind. The Mappilas forcibly took possession of their lands and wealth. Tipu Sultan did not object to their actions. Most of the Mappila landlords of today claim that they purchased the ownership of the landed properties from Nairs and Brahmins after paying heavy compensation. These blatant lies are being repeated by them in spite of the fact that practically nothing was paid to the Hindu landlords then or later. (The same Islamic treachery was repeated during the Mappila riots of 1921.)

In any case, Tipu Sultan succeeded in mass killing, converting lakhs of Hindus to Islamic faith, driving thousands out of their traditional homes, and finally making the rest extremely poor. Many Hindus belonging to lower castes accepted conversion to Islam under duress. However, many others, especially the Thiyyas, fled to Tellicherry and Mahe for safety.

When the British established their rule in Malabar and the Hindu landlords made efforts to recover their landed properties, illegally occupied by the local Mappilas, Mullahs started preaching to their fanatic followers that “killing of Hindu landlords was a sacred Islamic act,” leading to frequent Mappila outrages in Malabar.

In Cherunad, Vettathunad, Eranad, Valluvanad, Thamarassery and other interior areas, local Mappilas unleashed a reign of terror on the Hindu population, mainly to retain the illegally occupied land and to establish their domination over Hindus as during Tipu’s regime. Fearing the organised robberies and violence, people could not even travel freely in the Malabar hinterland of predominantly Mappila population.

Lt. Col. E. Phitiyan, Andriansi, Mayan, K.P. Padmanabha Menon Sadasyathilakan T.K. Velu Pillai, Ullur Parameshwara Iyer, and other prominent people have described vividly the various types of atrocities committed by Tipu Sultan during the days of his Islamic rule in Malabar. There is no count of the wealth looted from Hindu temples and taken away by him to Sreerangapatanam. It is, therefore, very pitiable that a few shameless Hindus of today have come forward to orchestrate the nefarious propaganda of the fanatic Muslims, namely, that it was the imperialist divide-and-rule policy of the British that was responsible for blaming the Muslims for various atrocities committed against Hindus. This Big Lie was surreptitiously entered subsequently in history books and related records. It is obvious that these “Hindus” are speaking on the theme of Hindu-Muslim unity and praising the ‘secular’ credentials of the Muslim League, Tipu Sultan and Aurangzeb to the sky, not sincerely for the sake of Hindu-Muslim amity but only because of their inherent cowardice. They even proclaim that the notorious Mappila outrage of 1921 was part of the freedom struggle!

CONCLUSION

A few observations about the attack of Tipu Sultan on the Travancore State would be appropriate in this context. If the Nedunkotta had not been constructed earlier mainly to stop the danger from the powerful Zamorin, the same fate would have befallen the helpless Travancore State as well. Because of the above fortification, Tipu Sultan could wreak vengeance only in Angamally, Alwaye, Varapuzha, Alangod and other towns on the northern borders of Travancore State. That is what the Dewan of Travancore, Madhava Rao, had written in the history of Travancore. It may be emphasized here that he had relied on the original local records, not the ones published by the European historians. He wrote: “Whatever cruelties, the local Mappilas were desirous of indulging in the land, Tipu Sultan and his army of Muslim converts did. The ancient and holy temples were heartlessly defiled or burnt down. The ruins of those temples destroyed by Tipu’s fanatic army are the existing evidences of the atrocities committed by Muslims in the country. Christian churches also had to suffer widespread destructions. However, Tipu Sultan spared only the territories of Cochin Raja who had surrendered to Hyder Ali Khan in the beginning itself. Still, when Tipu Sultan and his army entered Parur and started firing at Kodungallur, the Cochin Raja sent a letter to the Travancore Raja requesting him ‘to protect me and my family’.” (A copy of the original letter was also published in the book.)

These are the recorded facts about the atrocities unleashed by Tipu Sultan during his military regime notoriously known as Padayottakalam. Poets have written a number of poems about the sufferings of the people and the land during those nightmarish days. The following was written by a member of the Katathanad Royal Family about the consequences of Padayottakalam:

“Oh Shiva! Shiva Lingam (idol) has gone (destroyed) from the temple, and also the Lingam (manliness) from the land:”

(This is the English translation of the Malayalam article by P.C.N. Raja first published in Kesari Annual of 1964. The late Raja was a senior member of the Zamorin Royal Family.)

By LATE PCN RAJA

The TRUTH behind the so called donations of TIPU Sultan to the Sringeri Mutt

During Tipu’s barbaric raid on the Malabar. there was no atrocity that he didn’t commit on the Hindus. There, was no measure for the rivers of Hindu blood he shed, no limit to the cruelties he inflicted. It is worth recalling William Logan’s list of the Hindu temples that Tipu destroyed in the Malabar. It is also worth recalling the frenzy of rapture Tipu felt after his Malabar raid. He describes this rapture in his 19 January 1790 letter to his loyal servant, Badruz Juman Khan:

“I have achieved a great victory recently in Malabar and over four lakh Hindus were converted to Islam. I am now determined to march against the cursed Raman Nair.”

This Raman Nair was the same Dharmaraja Raman Nair of Travancore. This determination cost Tipu dearly. As we have seen in earlier chapters, it directly led to the so-called Third Anglo Mysore war, which badly singed Tipu. His hubris lay in tatters, and he appeared to have softened at least outwardly.

His immediate objective was to recover half of his kingdom, which he had to surrender to the British, according to the 1792 treaty. He realised that in order to achieve this objective, he could not afford to antagonise the Hindus who formed the majority population in his remaining dominions.

It was in this circumstance that he gave grants and gifts to the Mutt at Sringeri. However, our self-proclaimed intellectuals and alleged historians hold such aberrations as proof of Tipu’s amazing religious tolerance. But then, if we examine the conditions under which Tipu wrote honey-dipped letters to the pontiff of Sringeri and made lavish donations to the Mutt, a completely different picture emerges. Leela Prasad, in her Poetics of Conduct: Oral Narrative and Moral Being in a South Indian Town, quotes Surendranath Sen:

“Tipu was at this time [in 1793] hard-pressed by his enemies and wanted, therefore, to conciliate his Hindu subjects and at the same time to bring about the discomfiture of his enemies [the Marathas] by means of .superstitious rites.”

This opens to us another facet of Tipu’s personality.

Tipu placed immense faith in astrology. He filled his court with all sorts of soothsayers and astrologers. He would consult them for fixing auspicious dates and times before embarking on a raid. In his book Life History of Raja Kesavadas, VR Parameswaran Pillai narrates Tipu’s obsession with astrology:

“With respect to the much-published land-grants I had explained the reasons about 40 years back. Tipu had immense faith in astrological predictions. It was to become an Emperor (Padushah) after destroying the might of the British that Tipu resorted to land-grants and other donations to Hindu temples in Mysore including Sringeri Mutt, as per the advice of the local Brahmin astrologers. Most of these were done after his defeat in 1791 and the humiliating Srirangapatanam Treaty in 1792. These grants were not done out of respect or love for Hindus or Hindu religion but for becoming Padushah as predicted by the astrologers.”

The British colonel and historian, William Kirkpatrick, who discovered more than 2,000 letters (written in Farsi in Tipu’s own handwriting) in Tipu’s Srirangapattana fort (after his death) also echoes Parameswaran Pillai:

“…in his childish eagerness to give new denominations to everything, he should have suffered Seringapatam [Srirangapattana] and Bangalore to retain their old names; especially as the former appellation, having been derived from an idol, might, on that account, be supposed to have been particularly offensive to a bigoted Musulman. It is not, therefore, improbable, that some superstitious notion may have restrained him in these instances.”

Tipu’s confidence had been shattered by a series of reverses, which had finally culminated in the humiliating defeat of 1792. In this war, he had to cough up a huge sum of money, had lost half his territory, and had to send two of his sons as hostages. The haughty Tipu of the 1782-92 decade now faced an uphill struggle to recover his territory and regain his wounded pride. He had finally realised that in order to face a tough enemy like the British, he had to earn the confidence of his Hindu subjects who formed the majority population. He also understood that he would be in great personal danger if he antagonised them any further.

Therefore, it is more accurate to say that Tipu’s donation to the Sringeri Mutt was born out political expediency and not religious tolerance. If he was indeed a tolerant ruler, why would he demolish so many Hindu temples throughout his kingdom and in that of others? Why would he engage in such rampant and large scale conversions of Hindus? Why would he, in his secret letters, address non-Muslims as kaffirs?

It was the politician in Tipu that gave donations, grants, and gifts to the Sringeri Mutt and a few other temples. The bigot in him remained intact, eclipsed temporarily by a humiliating setback.

Sanskrit the sound of Existence !!!

Sadhguru Jaggi Vasudev : The Sanskrit language is a device, not necessarily a medium of communication. Most of the other languages were made up because we had to refer to something. Initially, they started with just a handful of words and then multiplied them into complex forms. But Sanskrit is a discovered language because today we know that if you feed any sound into an oscilloscope, every sound has a form attached to it. Similarly, every form has a sound attached to it. Every form in the existence is reverberating in a certain way and creates a certain form. This happened to me as a child: I would be staring at someone who would be talking. Initially, I heard their words, then just the sounds. After some time, I just saw some crazy patterns happening around them which so engrossed, amazed and amused me that I could just sit staring at them forever, not understanding a single word because I was not listening to the words at all.

Sanskrit is like a blueprint of the existence. What is in form, we converted into sound.
Sanskrit is one language where form and sound are connected. In English for example, if you say “sun” or “son,” in utterance it is the same, only in spelling it is different. What you write is not the criteria. The sound is the criteria because today modern science is proving to you that the whole existence is just a reverberation of energy. Where there is a vibration, there is bound to be a sound. The whole existence on one level is in sound form. When you realize what sound is attached to a particular form, you give this sound as the name for that form – now the sound and the form are connected. If you utter the sound, you are relating to the form – not just psychologically, but existentially, you are connecting with the form. If you have mastery over the sound, you also have mastery over the form. Sanskrit is like a blueprint of the existence. What is in form, we converted into sound. A lot of distortions have happened. How to preserve it in its right form has become a challenge even today since the necessary knowledge, understanding, and awareness is largely missing.

That is the reason why when Sanskrit is taught, it has to be learnt by rote. People just chant the language endlessly. It does not matter whether you know the meaning or not. The sound is important, not the meaning. Meanings are made up in your mind. It is the sound and the form which are connecting. Are you connecting or not? – That is the question. That is why it has become the mother of almost all Indian and European languages, except Tamil. Tamil did not come from Sanskrit. It developed independently. All the other Indian languages and almost all the European languages have their origin in Sanskrit.

Navratri – Celebration of d feminine energies

“This night and the coming day after this is dedicated to the feminine nature of the Divine. Durga, Laxmi and Saraswati are used as the symbols of these 3 dimensions of the femine.”

– Sadguru Jaggi Vasudev