Category Archives: Historical / Scientific facts

The purpose of this category is to rewrite the TRUE & AUTHENTIC World & Indian History without any Pride or Prejudice towards any individual or community or country or religion. Also the purpose of this category is to explore the Sciences behind different Customs & Traditions, Rituals & Followings, Mythology & Scriptures.

Madhava the Medieval India Mathematical Genius

Madhava of Sangamagrama (c. 1340 – c. 1425), was an Indian mathematician-astronomer from the town of Sangamagrama. His writings were later transmitted to Europe via Jesuit missionaries and traders who were active around the ancient port of Muziris at the time. As a result, it had an influence on later European developments in analysis and calculus.His birth place Sangamagrama is present-day Irinjalakuda near Thrissur, Kerala, India.

He was the first to use infinite series approximations for a range of trigonometric functions, which has been called the “decisive step onward from the finite procedures of ancient mathematics to treat their limit-passage to infinity“.

One of the greatest mathematician-astronomers of the Middle Ages, Madhava made pioneering contributions to the study of infinite series, calculus, trigonometry, geometry, and algebra.
Madhava was born as Irińńaŗappiļļy or Iriññinavaļļi Mādhava . He had written that his house name was related to the Vihar where a plant called “bakuļam” was planted. Bakuļam was locally known as “iraňňi”.

Irinjalakuda was once known as ‘Irińńāţikuţal’. Sangamagrāmam (lit. sangamam = union, grāmam = village) is a rough translation to Sanskrit from Dravidian word ‘Irińńāţikuţal’, which means ‘iru (two) ańńāţi (market) kǖţal (union)’ or the union of two markets.
Madhava provided the creative impulse for the development of a rich mathematical tradition in medieval Kerala. However, most of Madhava’s original work (except a couple of them) is lost. He is referred to in the work of subsequent Kerala mathematicians, particularly in Nilakantha Somayaji’s Tantrasangraha (c. 1500), as the source for several infinite series expansions, including sinθ and arctanθ.

The 16th-century text Mahajyānayana prakāra cites Madhava as the source for several series derivations for π. In Jyeṣṭhadeva’s Yuktibhāṣā (c. 1530), written in Malayalam, these series are presented with proofs in terms of the Taylor series expansions for polynomials like 1/(1+x2), with x = tanθ, etc.
As per the old Indian tradition of starting off new chapters with elementary content, the first four chapters of the Yuktibhasa contain elementary mathematics, such as division, proof of Pythagorean theorem, square root determination, etc.

The radical ideas are not discussed until the sixth chapter on circumference of a circle. Yuktibhasa contains the derivation and proof of the power series for inverse tangent, discovered by Madhava.
In the text, Jyesthadeva describes Madhava’s series in the following manner:

“The first term is the product of the given sine and radius of the desired arc divided by the cosine of the arc. The succeeding terms are obtained by a process of iteration when the first term is repeatedly multiplied by the square of the sine and divided by the square of the cosine. All the terms are then divided by the odd numbers 1, 3, 5, …. The arc is obtained by adding and subtracting respectively the terms of odd rank and those of even rank. It is laid down that the sine of the arc or that of its complement whichever is the smaller should be taken here as the given sine. Otherwise the terms obtained by this above iteration will not tend to the vanishing magnitude.”
This is wrongly attributed to James Gregory, who discovered it three centuries after Madhava.
Madhava laid the foundations for the development of calculus, which were further developed by his successors at the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics.

(It should be noted that certain ideas of calculus were known to earlier mathematicians.) Madhava also extended some results found in earlier works, including those of Bhāskara II.
Madhava developed some components of calculus such as differentiation, term-by-term integration, iterative methods for solutions of non-linear equations, and the theory that the area under a curve is its integral.
-Arjun Kadya

Interesting facts about AUM !!

5 Facts You May Not Know About ‘OM’
You’ve chanted OM, hundreds maybe thousands of times, and the symbol is, well, everywhere. But have you ever wondered, what it is about OM, that makes yogi’s wholeheartedly chant its glory and live in its symbolic presence?

Here are 5 facts you may not know, to help deepen your knowledge and connect your heart to this ancient sacred syllable. 

1. The sound of OM encompasses all words, all sounds in human language 

OM is a matrix of all sounds, when in its diversified form gives rise to all words used in language. 

Linguistically, all audible sounds are produced in the space within the mouth beginning at the root of the tongue and ending at the lips. The throat sound is A, and M is the lip sound; and the sound U represents the rolling forward of speech articulation which starts at the root of the tongue, continuing until it ends in the lips.

To pronounce OM correctly, remember, the sound vibration is pronounced “oom” as in home.

2. AUM and OM

In Sanskrit, the sound “O” is a diphthong spelled “AU”. A diphthong is the blending of two vowel sounds where both are normally heard and make a gliding sound. As a result, the difference between OM and AUM is simply one of transliteration. 

3. AUM represents the 3 Fold Division of Time

            A – is the waking state

            U – is the dream state

            M – is the state of deep sleep

At the end of AUM is a pause, a silence. This represents the state known as Turiya, or Infinite Consciousness

4. The visual symbol represents the meaning of AUM

The symbol OM visually consists of three curves, one semicircle, and a dot.
The large bottom curve symbolizes the waking state, A.
The middle curve signifies the dream state, U.

The upper curve denotes the state of deep sleep, M.

The dot signifies the fourth state of consciousness, Turiya.
 The semi circle at the top represents Maya and separates the dot from the other three curves. It signals to us that it is the illusion of Maya that is an obstacle to realization of the Highest.

 5. OM is associated with Ganesha

 The physical form of Lord Ganesha is said to be that of OM. The upper curve, of OM, is identified with the head or the face of Ganesh. The Lower curve his belly. The twisted curve, on the right side of OM is the trunk.

 Once you know the meaning, “Om” becomes the name of the Lord for you. Now you can call him, invoke him, pray to him. This is why many of the prayers, chants or mantras begin with “Om”. 

OM Shanti Shanti Shanti

Music & Chakras !!

The first chakra is at the base of the spine, at beginning of the anus and is called MULADHARA. Just above that is the next chakra called SVADHISTHANA. The third chakra is just above the navel called MANIPURA. Above that is the ANAHATA chakra which is in the center of the chest. Then is the throat chakra called VISSHUDHA. Above that is the chakra in-between the eyebrows called AJNA. The last chakra is on top of the head called SAHASRARA.

The drums affect the Mooladhara (the base chakra or the first chakra). The big and small drums, their effect is from the Mooladhara to Swadishtana(second chakra). The big wind instruments like trumpets affect the second to third chakra (Swadhisthana to the Manipura). Metallic sounds affect the Manipura to Anahata(the fourth chakra). When you hear a metallic screech, something happens in your belly. How many people have noticed this? The string instrument has its affects from the naval to the heart. Veena and Sitar – stringed instruments affects the Anahata (the heart chakra).

Flute music, wind instruments and sometimes the piano sounds affect the Anahata to Vishudhi (the throat chakra). Bells, sounds of water, bird songs, very soft and subtle sounds have its effects from throat to the Agna Chakra (in between the eyebrows). Then finally the Sahasrara the (top of the head) is affected by meditation and all other instruments put together at once.

If you watch any Indian rituals, you will understand that they knew this. In the temples, they placed the drums on the periphery, then there are the big wind instruments, and on the very inside of the sanctum sanctorum are bells and conch. So, sound vibes are balanced from the drums to the wind instruments, then stringed instruments, then again wind instruments and then bells and finally, it all ends in silence. The purpose of sound is silence. Did you all know this? Sound originates from silence and its goal is silence. Silence simply means total harmony. When there is total harmony deep within you, then even sound seems like an object, it seems heavy. But the way is through sound, through music. Music is that which connects the individual to the universal. The limited mind expands through music and realizes it is already part of the big consciousness or the big mind.

~ Sri Sri Ravi Shankar


7 Amazing Benefits of Clapping 👏👏👏👏👏
👏 “Clapping” a simple striking of hands but it’s much more than we think..Normally people clap to appreciate others for their good works and achievements or when they are in mood of joy. People also clap while singing songs, bhajans, and prayers at holy places. It is scientifically proved that clapping is very effective exercise to cure many human diseases.

    👏Clapping activates the receptors in the palms and cause activation of the . large area of the brain which leads the improvement in health. There are 39 different acupressure points for almost all organs on our palm which are activated by clapping and this action improves ur health slowly but effectively. Daily 10-20 minutes of clapping in morning keeps you fit and active. 👏👏                                         

 1. 👏Best Cure for Digestive disorder: Clapping is an effective exercise for the person who suffers from digestive disorder. 
  2. 👏Best Cure for back pain, neck pain, joint pain.. 

 3. 👏Best Cure for gout: Gout is a common problem with old age people and can be easily cured by clapping.


4. 👏Helpful for patients of low blood pressure.


 5. 👏Best exercise for heart and lungs: If someone is suffering from any heart and lung related diseases, then clapping plays important role in curing these diseases also. 

Clapping removes the obstacles from the main and collateral channels and keeps you fit and healthy. 6.👏Best exercise for children: Children that practice clapping exercise daily make only few spelling mistake and are work with more zeal than others. Helps also to improve their handwriting. The whole abstract of above given points is, clapping sharpens the brain of children.


7. 👏Improves the immune system: Clapping increases the immunity of a person n provides strength to the human body to fight against many diseases.                   


OM Chanting !!

Benefits of the OM Mantra
★ Chanting of OM Mantra purifies the environment around the chanter and produces positive vibrations.
★ The OM not only gives positive results to the one who is chanting it but to the entire vicinity wherever its vibrations flow.
★ It cleanses your aura.
★ It takes you alpha, a meditational state which gives you deep relaxation.
★ Your concentration increases when you chant this universal hymn.
★ The ॐ chanting removes toxin from your body. It gives you better immunity and self-healing power.
★ It improves your concentration and helps you focus on your target.
★ The ॐ chanting improves your voice and gives a strength to vocal cord and muscles during old age.
★ The ॐ chanting produces a vibration and sound which is felt in your vocal cord and sinus. It opens pore which in turn helps in removal of sinus problems gradually and if done in complete faith.
★ Om Mantra has a cardiovascular benefit too which keeps blood pressure normal.
★ It helps in keeping your emotions controlled and thus by putting a control over emotions and leads you to excel in life.
★ It is just like any other supplement that will help in the overall development of your body and mind positively without any side effects.
★ It regular chanting helps in taking you to a spiritual journey and which will only result if it is done daily for a longer period of time.
★ When OM Mantra chanted in group produces immense positive vibrations which charge up the entire vicinity.
★ Even the attendants feel fully charged up even though a person is completely tired.
★ Some people also claims to lose weight through ॐ chanting As it puts your entire body in work and its vibrations affects you positively hence enhancing your metabolism which leads to weight loss.
★ Om cleanses your skin and gives a sunny glow on your face when you chant OM regularly.
★ When you tend to chant it regularly you start feeling stronger.
★ Spinal cord efficiency is also increased by vibrations caused by sound of Aaaa. As this sound is generated from abdomen and mainly supported by spinal cord.
★ The sound uuu is created by vocal cord which affects thyroid glands and throat.
★ Even a picture of OM purifies the environment around.
★ It is said that rubbing hands while ॐ chanting and putting those charged hands on different parts of body heals or activates those body parts.
★ If those rubbed hands are put on your eyes your eye sight will start improving.
★ And if rubbed on your face, it can give you a great personality.
★ It is proved that chanting this Mantra improvises quality of water. So before drinking if OM is chanted it puts water crystal in most beautiful sequence, which effects the body beautifully.